Substance Use Ch. 10-18 – Flashcards

question
One of SAMHSA's model community prevention programs
answer
Works for changes in alcohol policies and ordinances.
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The DARE program stands for
answer
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
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Beginning in 1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc., to promote
answer
"Drug-Free" schools
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In discussing what we should be doing in drug prevention, the text says, "above all"
answer
Avoid sensational scare stories and preachy approaches
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Having students discuss their reactions to various moral and ethical dilemmas as a means to help them clarify their own values was one example of the general prevention approach known as
answer
affective education
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Tertiary prevention programs are aimed at
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People who have completed treatment for dependence and need relapse prevention or follow up
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Teaching students relaxation or meditation techniques was seen as one possible way of providing
answer
Alternatives to drug use
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The textbook pointed out that drug prevention and what else might have different goals and use different approaches.
answer
prevention of relapse
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According to the text, the ultimate goal of workplace drug prevention programs is to
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Prevent drug use by making clear that it is not condoned.
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One study of the Life Skills Training program found significantly lower use of
answer
marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco after 6 years
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Project ALERT and Life Skills Training were included as examples of
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Programs that Work, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
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Primary prevention programs are aimed at
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Young people who have not tried drugs
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In the early 1970s, the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model began to be questioned when it was learned that
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Students with more knowledge about drugs had a more positive attitude toward drugs
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Which of these is NOT one of the successful components included in the social influence model?
answer
Discussing the penalties for getting caught with cigarettes
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Which of these is NOT one of the Institute of Medicine's classifications for prevention programs?
answer
affective prevention
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Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as
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Peer participation programs, such as community service
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The ad campaign Above the Influence targets which age group?
answer
12-17
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DARE is one of the most widespread drug prevention programs in schools. Research on DARE has shown that
answer
It has not produced lasting reductions in drug or alcohol use
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The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at
answer
Cigarette smoking
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The most consistent feature of workplace drug prevention programs has been
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random urine testing
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In the public health model, programs designed to reach people who have started using some substances and to prevent them from abusing these substances or moving to more dangerous substances, would be classified as
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secondary prevention
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Which of these was NOT discussed as an effective family-based drug prevention approach?
answer
parenting, interactions and support (These are the effective family-based drug prevention approaches)
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CBT approaches to treatment
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Have the clients identify people, places, and behaviors associated with drug use.
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Because of the potential danger of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, these symptoms are often prevented or treated by administering
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Benzodiazepines
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Besides methadone, another substitute medication has recently been approved for maintaining opioid dependent patients. It is
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Buprenorphine
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Giving the user rewards for drug-free urine samples
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Is a form of contingency management
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Which one of these is an agonist therapy?
answer
methadone, nicotine replacement
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Because most opioid dependent people prescribed naltrexone stop taking it,
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researchers are testing a depot form that blocks heroin's effects for up to 6 weeks.
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Motivational enhancement therapy has as its goal
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has as its goal helping the user move to another "stage of change."
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Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the __________ phase of treatment.
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maintenance
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Although many medications have been tested for treating cocaine dependence, most have shown little promise and none has yet been approved. The most promising results have been found with
answer
modafinil.
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Is treatment for drug dependence effective?
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Statistically, treatment does reduce crime and increase employment.
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Which of these has NOT received FDA approval for use during the maintenance phase of alcohol
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disulfiram(Antabuse), naltrexone, and acamprostate(calcium acetyl) THESE ARE USED IN THE MAINTENANCE
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Rapid opioid detoxification is based on
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Anesthetizing users and administering an antagonist, so that withdrawal occurs while they are asleep
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substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set from 2009 was
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opioid?
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The most common form of medical treatment for opioid dependence is
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methadone maintenance
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Before we can evaluate the success of a drug treatment program, we have to understand the program's
answer
Goals
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Which of these is NOT an FDA-approved form of nicotine replacement therapy?
answer
THESE ARE APPROVED: transdermal nicotine patch, gum, nasal spray, vapor inhaler, lozenge.
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Studies of court-ordered referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous versus other types of interventions have
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Not found differences in effectiveness between AA and other approaches
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Although naltrexone has been used to treat alcohol dependence, it
answer
Is an opioid antagonist, and it is not clear how it works with alcohol users.
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The "therapeutic workplace" is an example of what approach to drug treatment?
answer
Contingency management
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Although no medication has yet received FDA approval for treating cannabis dependence, one has shown effectiveness in relieving cannabis withdrawal symptoms. That medication is
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oral THC
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Varenicline, approved in 2006 for smoking cessation.
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Is a partial nicotine-receptor agonist.
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Prevention of withdrawal symptoms using medications would be considered part of the ____________ process.
answer
Detoxification
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Which of these was NOT one of the three reasons given for why we focus so much attention on drug use by athletes?
answer
Athletes make so much money
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One of the early types of stimulant drug reported to be used by boxers and others was
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strychnine.
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In the 1800s, the French cycling team endorsed Mariani's "wine for athletes" that contained
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cocaine.
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Stimulant drugs like caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine are sometimes considered to increase energy output and are, therefore, called __________ drugs.
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ergogenic
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The International Olympics Committee first established rules disqualifying competitors who failed or who refused to take drug tests in
answer
1968.
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After the National Football League banned the distribution of amphetamines in 1971,
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individual players could still get a prescription and use amphetamines if they wanted.
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During and after World War II, it was found that malnourished people could gain weight more rapidly if they were treated with
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testosterone.
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An American physician came back from the 1956 Olympic games after learning about the Soviets' use of a steroid drug and helped to develop and test more selective ____________ steroids.
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anabolic
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The 2003 BALCO scandal involved a laboratory that was
answer
selling a previously undetectable steroid to baseball players
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One side effect of the tougher 2006 drug testing policies in Major League Baseball is that
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more players are diagnosed with ADHD so they can have therapeutic-use exemptions to take stimulant drugs.
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College athletes who want to avoid failing a drug test
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have to be very careful, because there are more than 3,000 products containing banned substances.
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Extensive testing of the effects of amphetamines has concluded that they
answer
can improve performances by a few percentage points.
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Laboratory studies of endurance on stationary bicycles have found that caffeine
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can significantly improve work output at doses of 300-500 mg.
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One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a Major League Baseball pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was
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ephedrine.
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Although testosterone and related anabolic steroids clearly increase muscle mass during puberty, it has been more difficult to determine scientifically whether adult men with normal testosterone can get much stronger from extra steroids, partly because
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it would be unethical to expose research participants to the high doses of multiple steroids reportedly used by athletes.
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It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because
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they produce detectable psychological effects.
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Which of these was NOT mentioned as one of the psychological side effects of high doses of steroids? A. memory loss B. psychological dependence C. mood swings D. increased aggressiveness ("'roid rage")
answer
memory loss
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Women who use steroids to increase their strength might produce some irreversible effects, including
answer
increased facial hair growth.
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As part of the Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1990, anabolic steroids were
answer
listed as Schedule III controlled substances, with limited prescription refills
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So-called "pituitary giants" often die at an early age because their internal organs continue to grow due to excessive production of
answer
human growth hormone.
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Clenbuterol was first detected in Olympic athletes in 1992. Originally developed as a bronchodilator for treating asthma, this drug is
answer
a beta-2 agonist
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One widely-used legal dietary supplement that has been shown to increase strength is
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creatine.
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Some bodybuilders are trying to appear not only big and strong, but also lean. This is sometimes referred to as looking
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cut, ripped, or shredded.
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An ideal body fat range for a healthy male is
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14 to 20 percent
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Which of the following stimulant drugs have been used as performance enhancers in athletic competitions
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A. Strychine B. Cocaine C. Caffeine
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The origin of the word "dope" is derived from the Dutch word used in South Africa to refer to
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a cheap brandy used to impair the performance of racing horses
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Most of the resin is in which part of the cannabis plant?
answer
flowering tops.
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Cannabis indica has more psychoactive potency, whereas Cannabis sativa is more associated with
answer
hemp.
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The primary active ingredient in marijuana is
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delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
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Hashish refers to
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pure cannabis resin.
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The flowering tops (buds) of unpollinated female cannabis plants produce a high-grade marijuana known as
answer
sinsemilla.
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The American public began to take interest in the new drug menace known as marijuana
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after a New Orleans newspaper in 1926 associated its use with crime.
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The 1944 LaGuardia report of the New York Academy of Medicine concluded that "those who have been smoking marihuana for a period of years . . ."
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showed no mental or physical deterioration
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The 70 chemicals that are known to be unique to the cannabis plant are called
answer
cannabinoids.
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The natural substance in the body that has marijuana-like effects is called
answer
anandamide.
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In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4 percent THC or 20 mg oral THC
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the peak effects were similar, but smoking produced a faster onset of effects.
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The abuse potential of THC
answer
is higher for smoked than for oral THC
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A consistent cognitive effect of marijuana, seen both in frequent users and in less experienced users, is
answer
slowing of cognitive processing.
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A great number of studies have consistently reported that smoked marijuana and oral THC both produce
answer
increased total daily food intake
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Studies show that marijuana increases which of the following?
answer
Nonverbal social interactions.
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In 1985, the FDA approved the sale of dronabinol (Marinol), which
answer
is a capsule containing THC
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The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine suggested that marijuana cigarettes should
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be allowed for no more than six months for patients with intractable pain or vomiting
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Tolerance to the effects of smoked marijuana
answer
allows experienced marijuana users to obtain euphoric effects with minimal cognitive impairment.
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Studies of the effects of marijuana on automobile driving show
answer
significant impairments when inexperienced users are studied in a laboratory environment.
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Which of the following has NOT been found as an effect of regular marijuana use?
answer
Increased testosterone levels in men
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Which of the following did NOT occur in the late 1960s and throughout the1970s in the United States?
answer
Marijuana use among high school students reached an all-time low.
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The current shift in the U.S. public's attitude towards marijuana laws is probably partly related to which of the following?
answer
Increasing evidence that marijuana is relatively innocuous A desire to spend federal funds more wisely and gain tax revenue
question
Rimonabant is currently available as an anti-obesity agent. What is its primary mechanism of action?
answer
CB1 receptor antagonist
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As of mid-2012, at least _____ states and Washington, D.C. have passed ballot initiatives allowing the use of medical marijuana.
answer
17
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In hunter-gatherer societies, the shaman or medicine man (or woman) was important not only for understanding what we now call medicine, but also because he or she was
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a spiritual, or religious leader.
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One name that has been used for hallucinogenic drugs is psychedelic, which means
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mind-viewing, and implies a beneficial, visionary effect.
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One major grouping of hallucinogens typically allows the user to remain in some touch with the real world and to remember much of what he or she experienced. This group of drugs was referred to as the
answer
phantastica.
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LSD and psilocybin belong to the chemical grouping of
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indoles.
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LSD was synthesized from alkaloids derived from
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ergot fungus.
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The psychological effect of LSD was first reported by
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Albert Hofmann, the Swiss chemist who developed the drug.
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The major thrust of early research on LSD was for its
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supposed ability to access the subconscious mind.
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During the 1950s, one U.S. government agency that conducted research with LSD was the
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Central Intelligence Agency.
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The early LSD researcher who was fired from his academic job, became a proponent of hallucinogenic drug use, and started a religion in which LSD was the sacrament is:
answer
Timothy Leary.
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LSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because
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it produces effects at such low doses.
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. Although LSD has complex effects in the brain, the best evidence indicates that its hallucinogenic properties are due to stimulating
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serotonin-2A receptors.
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The sensation of experiencing sounds as pictures, or of seeing movements produced by musical rhythms, is known as
answer
synesthesia.
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In rare cases, people who have used LSD experience similar symptoms weeks or months later. The common term for this has been
answer
flashbacks.
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Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of
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hallucinogenic mushrooms.
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A close relative of LSD, d-lysergic acid amide, is found naturally in
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morning glories and Hawaiian baby woodroses
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DMT, a short-acting hallucinogen that is usually ineffective when taken orally, is found in
answer
Cohoba snuff.
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The combination of two plants, one containing DMT and the other containing harmaline (an MAO inhibitor), was originally used by indigenous cultures in South America and is called,
answer
ayahuasca
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The Native American Church includes aspects of Christianity and uses __________ as a sacrament.
answer
peyote
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Besides hallucinations, mescaline also produces
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pupil dilation, increased heart rate and blood pressure.
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The catechol hallucinogens include mescaline plus a variety of synthetic derivatives of
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amphetamine.
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A drug that has been reported to produce an increase in sociability and euphoria, as well as an increase in blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse is:
answer
MDMA
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PCP was patented as Sernyl and first tested as
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a dissociative anesthetic.
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The PCP experience differs from LSD and mescaline experiences in that PCP users
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report more changes in body perception
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Peace pill and angel dust have been street names for
answer
PCP
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Atropa belladonna is also known by the name
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deadly nightshade
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The anticholinergic plant with a forked root that is mentioned in the Bible is
answer
mandrake.
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The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religions all over the world is
answer
amanita muscaria.
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The indole originally found in toad skins, that turns out not to be a very potent hallucinogen, is
answer
bufotenin.
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Which of the following hallucinogens has NOT received recent scientific interest as a psychotherapeutic agent?
answer
PCP
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Which of the following most accurately describes recent psilocybin research?
answer
the acute effects on mystical experiences
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When evaluating drug-related data from animal studies, which of these questions should be asked?
answer
A. Was the dosing regimen used similar to that used by humans? B. Was the route of administration similar to that used by humans? C. Was the drug self-administered by the animal
question
In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act
answer
authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products in specific ways.
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One big factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking among adults is
answer
Higher level of education
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Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. began to decline
answer
after the 1964 Surgeon General's report
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Reynolds was unable to market Premier, a plastic cigarette containing catalytic crystals coated with tobacco extract, because
answer
the FDA considered them a "nicotine delivery device" rather than an agricultural product
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The major commercial species of Nicotiana that is grown for tobacco products is
answer
Nicotiana tobacum.
question
People who switch to low tar and nicotine brand cigarettes
answer
typically take more and deeper puffs and probably get no safety benefit.
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90 percent of all U.S. cigarettes sold are now
answer
Filter cigars
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Tobacco use became popular in European culture because:
answer
it was associated with wealth and status
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During the 18th century, which method of use of tobacco increased in England
answer
Snuff
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In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the FDA
answer
Had no authority to regulare tobacco products
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Chewing was the most popular form of tobacco use until about 1900, but by 1920 the most popular form was
answer
cigars
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The biggest health concern for users of smokeless tobacco has been
answer
cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.
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As a potent poison, nicotine causes death by
answer
increasing blood pressure until a stroke occurs.
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Recent research on the dependence produced by nicotine has focused on genetic differences related to:
answer
acetylcholine receptors
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One recent fad in tobacco use has been
answer
hookahs (water pipes)
question
Gum, patches, lozenges, and inhalers are all various forms of
answer
nicotine replacement therapy
question
Although lung cancer is not common, about _______ percent of all lung cancers occur in smokers.
answer
85
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In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency declared that
answer
secondhand smoke is a known carcinogen that increases lung cancer risk.
question
Nicotine acts in the brain by
answer
first stimulating and then blocking cholinergic receptors
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In July 2011, the nicotine vaccine NicVax was
answer
found to be no better than placebo.
question
The psychological effect of cigarette smoking is
answer
arousal and activation--a mild stimulant effect calm and relaxation--a mild antianxiety effect.
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In 2006, the FDA approved a nicotine partial agonist drug as a smoking treatment. The drug is
answer
varenicline (Chantix)
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Annual "smoking attributable mortality" in the U.S. is estimated at
answer
440,000
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About 90 percent of the more than 40 million former smokers in the U.S. report that
answer
they quit smoking without a treatment program.
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One of the most consistent and best-documented effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is
answer
low birth weight
question
In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,
answer
Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee
question
Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
answer
40-60 mg (about half the amount in coffee)
question
_____________ is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages.
answer
theophylline
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The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled
answer
The Women's Petition Against Coffee.
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Theobroma, the genus name for the cacao tree, is Latin for
answer
food of the gods
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The largest exporters of coffee to the U.S. are
answer
Colombia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Mexico.
question
Green, black, and oolong tea are all prepared from leaves of
answer
Camellia sinensis
question
In the 18th century, English coffeehouses were referred to as
answer
penny universities
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The legend of the discovery of coffee relates to
answer
Kaldi and his dancing goats
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The world's greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in
answer
Turkey
question
All of the xanthines have similar effects. But which one has the greatest overall effect?
answer
caffeine
question
According to current FDA rules on "cola" drinks
answer
they cannot contain more than 6 mg caffeine per ounce
question
One important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is
answer
whether the person is a regular user
question
The most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is
answer
headache
question
In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because
answer
the syrup contained caffiene
question
Often people who drink too much alcohol attempt to "sober up" by drinking coffee. Several studies support the idea that caffeine
answer
is likely to lead to increased arousal, but the drinker is still impaired
question
Caffeine has been shown to be an effective treatment for
answer
migraine headaches
question
The unique xanthine in chocolate is
answer
theobromine
question
Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
answer
doubles the risk of heart attack
question
Caffeine works in the brain by
answer
blocking adenosine receptors
question
The main active ingredient in Red Bull and other energy drinks is
answer
caffeine
question
Caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it is
answer
a vasoconstrictor.
question
The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about _____ after drinking coffee.
answer
2 hours
question
The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
answer
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA's regulatory authority over them.
question
What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer's disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?
answer
Ginkgo biloba
question
Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved OTC weight-control ingredient is
answer
orlistat (alli).
question
The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up
answer
an "Adverse Events Reporting" process.
question
Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,
answer
various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients
question
Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as
answer
food products
question
If you buy a bottle of St. John's wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg
answer
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients
question
The U.S. market for over-the-counter drug products totals about
answer
$18 billion
question
The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is
answer
caffeine
question
The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing __________ be kept "behind the counter," and buyers must show identification and sign for their purchase.
answer
pseudoephedrine
question
SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating
answer
depression
question
Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?
answer
It acts as a cough suppressant
question
NSAID stands for
answer
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
question
Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?
answer
dextromethorphan
question
There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations
answer
dextromethorphan
question
The generic name for Tylenol and Datril is
answer
acetaminophen.
question
Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name
answer
Aspirin
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Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of
answer
Reye's syndrome
question
The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by
answer
knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names.
question
Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?
answer
dextromethorphan
question
Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)
answer
antipyretic (reduces fever)
question
The acronym GRAS stands for
answer
generally recognized as safe
question
Cold viruses are usually transmitted
answer
by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose
question
The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by
answer
Egyptians, around 1500 BC
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The 16th century European physician Paracelsus, and later Dr. Thomas Sydenham promoted the use of
answer
laudanum.
question
In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name
answer
Heroin
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The two major active chemicals in opium are
answer
morphine and codeine.
question
Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for
answer
the opium poppy
question
Heroin became the drug of choice for many opioid users
answer
during the 1920s, because it was easier to smuggle the small amounts needed for an effective dose.
question
One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was
answer
a 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking.
question
By the beginning of the 20th century, a greater percentage of Americans were dependent on opioids than at any time before or since. Opium smoking and medical use of injected pure morphine were important contributors to this, along with
answer
Patent medicines containing opium extracts or morphine
question
Possession of opium, morphine, or heroin without a prescription was made a crime by
answer
a 1915 Supreme Court decision.
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The Opium War of 1839-1842 resulted, among other things, in
answer
the island of Hong Kong becoming a British possession.
question
"Black tar" is
answer
a name given heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form
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At the current time, most of the heroin in the U.S. originates from poppy fields in
answer
Colombia and Mexico.
question
Vicodin and OxyContin are examples of
answer
prescription opioids that are being misused at relatively high rates.
question
Which of these opioids is about 100 times as potent as morphine?
answer
fentanyl
question
Naloxone, nalorphine, and naltrexone are examples of
answer
opioid antagonists.
question
Enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins are
answer
three classes of endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine
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Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability to
answer
treat diarrhea
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Siegel and his colleagues have shown in animal studies that tolerance to opioids
answer
is partly due to conditioned responses
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The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to
answer
a bad case of intestinal flu
question
The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of ____________ in developing opioid dependence.
answer
positive reinforcement
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In a heroin user, negative reinforcement of drug-taking behavior can occur when
answer
withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection
question
Long-term exposure to opioid drugs
answer
has not been clearly shown to produce damage to any tissue or organ system
question
Heroin is more potent than morphine because
answer
it more readily crosses the blood-brain barrier
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question
One of SAMHSA's model community prevention programs
answer
Works for changes in alcohol policies and ordinances.
question
The DARE program stands for
answer
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
question
Beginning in 1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc., to promote
answer
"Drug-Free" schools
question
In discussing what we should be doing in drug prevention, the text says, "above all"
answer
Avoid sensational scare stories and preachy approaches
question
Having students discuss their reactions to various moral and ethical dilemmas as a means to help them clarify their own values was one example of the general prevention approach known as
answer
affective education
question
Tertiary prevention programs are aimed at
answer
People who have completed treatment for dependence and need relapse prevention or follow up
question
Teaching students relaxation or meditation techniques was seen as one possible way of providing
answer
Alternatives to drug use
question
The textbook pointed out that drug prevention and what else might have different goals and use different approaches.
answer
prevention of relapse
question
According to the text, the ultimate goal of workplace drug prevention programs is to
answer
Prevent drug use by making clear that it is not condoned.
question
One study of the Life Skills Training program found significantly lower use of
answer
marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco after 6 years
question
Project ALERT and Life Skills Training were included as examples of
answer
Programs that Work, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
question
Primary prevention programs are aimed at
answer
Young people who have not tried drugs
question
In the early 1970s, the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model began to be questioned when it was learned that
answer
Students with more knowledge about drugs had a more positive attitude toward drugs
question
Which of these is NOT one of the successful components included in the social influence model?
answer
Discussing the penalties for getting caught with cigarettes
question
Which of these is NOT one of the Institute of Medicine's classifications for prevention programs?
answer
affective prevention
question
Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as
answer
Peer participation programs, such as community service
question
The ad campaign Above the Influence targets which age group?
answer
12-17
question
DARE is one of the most widespread drug prevention programs in schools. Research on DARE has shown that
answer
It has not produced lasting reductions in drug or alcohol use
question
The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at
answer
Cigarette smoking
question
The most consistent feature of workplace drug prevention programs has been
answer
random urine testing
question
In the public health model, programs designed to reach people who have started using some substances and to prevent them from abusing these substances or moving to more dangerous substances, would be classified as
answer
secondary prevention
question
Which of these was NOT discussed as an effective family-based drug prevention approach?
answer
parenting, interactions and support (These are the effective family-based drug prevention approaches)
question
CBT approaches to treatment
answer
Have the clients identify people, places, and behaviors associated with drug use.
question
Because of the potential danger of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, these symptoms are often prevented or treated by administering
answer
Benzodiazepines
question
Besides methadone, another substitute medication has recently been approved for maintaining opioid dependent patients. It is
answer
Buprenorphine
question
Giving the user rewards for drug-free urine samples
answer
Is a form of contingency management
question
Which one of these is an agonist therapy?
answer
methadone, nicotine replacement
question
Because most opioid dependent people prescribed naltrexone stop taking it,
answer
researchers are testing a depot form that blocks heroin's effects for up to 6 weeks.
question
Motivational enhancement therapy has as its goal
answer
has as its goal helping the user move to another "stage of change."
question
Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the __________ phase of treatment.
answer
maintenance
question
Although many medications have been tested for treating cocaine dependence, most have shown little promise and none has yet been approved. The most promising results have been found with
answer
modafinil.
question
Is treatment for drug dependence effective?
answer
Statistically, treatment does reduce crime and increase employment.
question
Which of these has NOT received FDA approval for use during the maintenance phase of alcohol
answer
disulfiram(Antabuse), naltrexone, and acamprostate(calcium acetyl) THESE ARE USED IN THE MAINTENANCE
question
Rapid opioid detoxification is based on
answer
Anesthetizing users and administering an antagonist, so that withdrawal occurs while they are asleep
question
substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set from 2009 was
answer
opioid?
question
The most common form of medical treatment for opioid dependence is
answer
methadone maintenance
question
Before we can evaluate the success of a drug treatment program, we have to understand the program's
answer
Goals
question
Which of these is NOT an FDA-approved form of nicotine replacement therapy?
answer
THESE ARE APPROVED: transdermal nicotine patch, gum, nasal spray, vapor inhaler, lozenge.
question
Studies of court-ordered referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous versus other types of interventions have
answer
Not found differences in effectiveness between AA and other approaches
question
Although naltrexone has been used to treat alcohol dependence, it
answer
Is an opioid antagonist, and it is not clear how it works with alcohol users.
question
The "therapeutic workplace" is an example of what approach to drug treatment?
answer
Contingency management
question
Although no medication has yet received FDA approval for treating cannabis dependence, one has shown effectiveness in relieving cannabis withdrawal symptoms. That medication is
answer
oral THC
question
Varenicline, approved in 2006 for smoking cessation.
answer
Is a partial nicotine-receptor agonist.
question
Prevention of withdrawal symptoms using medications would be considered part of the ____________ process.
answer
Detoxification
question
Which of these was NOT one of the three reasons given for why we focus so much attention on drug use by athletes?
answer
Athletes make so much money
question
One of the early types of stimulant drug reported to be used by boxers and others was
answer
strychnine.
question
In the 1800s, the French cycling team endorsed Mariani's "wine for athletes" that contained
answer
cocaine.
question
Stimulant drugs like caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine are sometimes considered to increase energy output and are, therefore, called __________ drugs.
answer
ergogenic
question
The International Olympics Committee first established rules disqualifying competitors who failed or who refused to take drug tests in
answer
1968.
question
After the National Football League banned the distribution of amphetamines in 1971,
answer
individual players could still get a prescription and use amphetamines if they wanted.
question
During and after World War II, it was found that malnourished people could gain weight more rapidly if they were treated with
answer
testosterone.
question
An American physician came back from the 1956 Olympic games after learning about the Soviets' use of a steroid drug and helped to develop and test more selective ____________ steroids.
answer
anabolic
question
The 2003 BALCO scandal involved a laboratory that was
answer
selling a previously undetectable steroid to baseball players
question
One side effect of the tougher 2006 drug testing policies in Major League Baseball is that
answer
more players are diagnosed with ADHD so they can have therapeutic-use exemptions to take stimulant drugs.
question
College athletes who want to avoid failing a drug test
answer
have to be very careful, because there are more than 3,000 products containing banned substances.
question
Extensive testing of the effects of amphetamines has concluded that they
answer
can improve performances by a few percentage points.
question
Laboratory studies of endurance on stationary bicycles have found that caffeine
answer
can significantly improve work output at doses of 300-500 mg.
question
One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a Major League Baseball pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was
answer
ephedrine.
question
Although testosterone and related anabolic steroids clearly increase muscle mass during puberty, it has been more difficult to determine scientifically whether adult men with normal testosterone can get much stronger from extra steroids, partly because
answer
it would be unethical to expose research participants to the high doses of multiple steroids reportedly used by athletes.
question
It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because
answer
they produce detectable psychological effects.
question
Which of these was NOT mentioned as one of the psychological side effects of high doses of steroids? A. memory loss B. psychological dependence C. mood swings D. increased aggressiveness ("'roid rage")
answer
memory loss
question
Women who use steroids to increase their strength might produce some irreversible effects, including
answer
increased facial hair growth.
question
As part of the Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1990, anabolic steroids were
answer
listed as Schedule III controlled substances, with limited prescription refills
question
So-called "pituitary giants" often die at an early age because their internal organs continue to grow due to excessive production of
answer
human growth hormone.
question
Clenbuterol was first detected in Olympic athletes in 1992. Originally developed as a bronchodilator for treating asthma, this drug is
answer
a beta-2 agonist
question
One widely-used legal dietary supplement that has been shown to increase strength is
answer
creatine.
question
Some bodybuilders are trying to appear not only big and strong, but also lean. This is sometimes referred to as looking
answer
cut, ripped, or shredded.
question
An ideal body fat range for a healthy male is
answer
14 to 20 percent
question
Which of the following stimulant drugs have been used as performance enhancers in athletic competitions
answer
A. Strychine B. Cocaine C. Caffeine
question
The origin of the word "dope" is derived from the Dutch word used in South Africa to refer to
answer
a cheap brandy used to impair the performance of racing horses
question
Most of the resin is in which part of the cannabis plant?
answer
flowering tops.
question
Cannabis indica has more psychoactive potency, whereas Cannabis sativa is more associated with
answer
hemp.
question
The primary active ingredient in marijuana is
answer
delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
question
Hashish refers to
answer
pure cannabis resin.
question
The flowering tops (buds) of unpollinated female cannabis plants produce a high-grade marijuana known as
answer
sinsemilla.
question
The American public began to take interest in the new drug menace known as marijuana
answer
after a New Orleans newspaper in 1926 associated its use with crime.
question
The 1944 LaGuardia report of the New York Academy of Medicine concluded that "those who have been smoking marihuana for a period of years . . ."
answer
showed no mental or physical deterioration
question
The 70 chemicals that are known to be unique to the cannabis plant are called
answer
cannabinoids.
question
The natural substance in the body that has marijuana-like effects is called
answer
anandamide.
question
In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4 percent THC or 20 mg oral THC
answer
the peak effects were similar, but smoking produced a faster onset of effects.
question
The abuse potential of THC
answer
is higher for smoked than for oral THC
question
A consistent cognitive effect of marijuana, seen both in frequent users and in less experienced users, is
answer
slowing of cognitive processing.
question
A great number of studies have consistently reported that smoked marijuana and oral THC both produce
answer
increased total daily food intake
question
Studies show that marijuana increases which of the following?
answer
Nonverbal social interactions.
question
In 1985, the FDA approved the sale of dronabinol (Marinol), which
answer
is a capsule containing THC
question
The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine suggested that marijuana cigarettes should
answer
be allowed for no more than six months for patients with intractable pain or vomiting
question
Tolerance to the effects of smoked marijuana
answer
allows experienced marijuana users to obtain euphoric effects with minimal cognitive impairment.
question
Studies of the effects of marijuana on automobile driving show
answer
significant impairments when inexperienced users are studied in a laboratory environment.
question
Which of the following has NOT been found as an effect of regular marijuana use?
answer
Increased testosterone levels in men
question
Which of the following did NOT occur in the late 1960s and throughout the1970s in the United States?
answer
Marijuana use among high school students reached an all-time low.
question
The current shift in the U.S. public's attitude towards marijuana laws is probably partly related to which of the following?
answer
Increasing evidence that marijuana is relatively innocuous A desire to spend federal funds more wisely and gain tax revenue
question
Rimonabant is currently available as an anti-obesity agent. What is its primary mechanism of action?
answer
CB1 receptor antagonist
question
As of mid-2012, at least _____ states and Washington, D.C. have passed ballot initiatives allowing the use of medical marijuana.
answer
17
question
In hunter-gatherer societies, the shaman or medicine man (or woman) was important not only for understanding what we now call medicine, but also because he or she was
answer
a spiritual, or religious leader.
question
One name that has been used for hallucinogenic drugs is psychedelic, which means
answer
mind-viewing, and implies a beneficial, visionary effect.
question
One major grouping of hallucinogens typically allows the user to remain in some touch with the real world and to remember much of what he or she experienced. This group of drugs was referred to as the
answer
phantastica.
question
LSD and psilocybin belong to the chemical grouping of
answer
indoles.
question
LSD was synthesized from alkaloids derived from
answer
ergot fungus.
question
The psychological effect of LSD was first reported by
answer
Albert Hofmann, the Swiss chemist who developed the drug.
question
The major thrust of early research on LSD was for its
answer
supposed ability to access the subconscious mind.
question
During the 1950s, one U.S. government agency that conducted research with LSD was the
answer
Central Intelligence Agency.
question
The early LSD researcher who was fired from his academic job, became a proponent of hallucinogenic drug use, and started a religion in which LSD was the sacrament is:
answer
Timothy Leary.
question
LSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because
answer
it produces effects at such low doses.
question
. Although LSD has complex effects in the brain, the best evidence indicates that its hallucinogenic properties are due to stimulating
answer
serotonin-2A receptors.
question
The sensation of experiencing sounds as pictures, or of seeing movements produced by musical rhythms, is known as
answer
synesthesia.
question
In rare cases, people who have used LSD experience similar symptoms weeks or months later. The common term for this has been
answer
flashbacks.
question
Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of
answer
hallucinogenic mushrooms.
question
A close relative of LSD, d-lysergic acid amide, is found naturally in
answer
morning glories and Hawaiian baby woodroses
question
DMT, a short-acting hallucinogen that is usually ineffective when taken orally, is found in
answer
Cohoba snuff.
question
The combination of two plants, one containing DMT and the other containing harmaline (an MAO inhibitor), was originally used by indigenous cultures in South America and is called,
answer
ayahuasca
question
The Native American Church includes aspects of Christianity and uses __________ as a sacrament.
answer
peyote
question
Besides hallucinations, mescaline also produces
answer
pupil dilation, increased heart rate and blood pressure.
question
The catechol hallucinogens include mescaline plus a variety of synthetic derivatives of
answer
amphetamine.
question
A drug that has been reported to produce an increase in sociability and euphoria, as well as an increase in blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse is:
answer
MDMA
question
PCP was patented as Sernyl and first tested as
answer
a dissociative anesthetic.
question
The PCP experience differs from LSD and mescaline experiences in that PCP users
answer
report more changes in body perception
question
Peace pill and angel dust have been street names for
answer
PCP
question
Atropa belladonna is also known by the name
answer
deadly nightshade
question
The anticholinergic plant with a forked root that is mentioned in the Bible is
answer
mandrake.
question
The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religions all over the world is
answer
amanita muscaria.
question
The indole originally found in toad skins, that turns out not to be a very potent hallucinogen, is
answer
bufotenin.
question
Which of the following hallucinogens has NOT received recent scientific interest as a psychotherapeutic agent?
answer
PCP
question
Which of the following most accurately describes recent psilocybin research?
answer
the acute effects on mystical experiences
question
When evaluating drug-related data from animal studies, which of these questions should be asked?
answer
A. Was the dosing regimen used similar to that used by humans? B. Was the route of administration similar to that used by humans? C. Was the drug self-administered by the animal
question
In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act
answer
authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products in specific ways.
question
One big factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking among adults is
answer
Higher level of education
question
Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. began to decline
answer
after the 1964 Surgeon General's report
question
Reynolds was unable to market Premier, a plastic cigarette containing catalytic crystals coated with tobacco extract, because
answer
the FDA considered them a "nicotine delivery device" rather than an agricultural product
question
The major commercial species of Nicotiana that is grown for tobacco products is
answer
Nicotiana tobacum.
question
People who switch to low tar and nicotine brand cigarettes
answer
typically take more and deeper puffs and probably get no safety benefit.
question
90 percent of all U.S. cigarettes sold are now
answer
Filter cigars
question
Tobacco use became popular in European culture because:
answer
it was associated with wealth and status
question
During the 18th century, which method of use of tobacco increased in England
answer
Snuff
question
In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the FDA
answer
Had no authority to regulare tobacco products
question
Chewing was the most popular form of tobacco use until about 1900, but by 1920 the most popular form was
answer
cigars
question
The biggest health concern for users of smokeless tobacco has been
answer
cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.
question
As a potent poison, nicotine causes death by
answer
increasing blood pressure until a stroke occurs.
question
Recent research on the dependence produced by nicotine has focused on genetic differences related to:
answer
acetylcholine receptors
question
One recent fad in tobacco use has been
answer
hookahs (water pipes)
question
Gum, patches, lozenges, and inhalers are all various forms of
answer
nicotine replacement therapy
question
Although lung cancer is not common, about _______ percent of all lung cancers occur in smokers.
answer
85
question
In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency declared that
answer
secondhand smoke is a known carcinogen that increases lung cancer risk.
question
Nicotine acts in the brain by
answer
first stimulating and then blocking cholinergic receptors
question
In July 2011, the nicotine vaccine NicVax was
answer
found to be no better than placebo.
question
The psychological effect of cigarette smoking is
answer
arousal and activation--a mild stimulant effect calm and relaxation--a mild antianxiety effect.
question
In 2006, the FDA approved a nicotine partial agonist drug as a smoking treatment. The drug is
answer
varenicline (Chantix)
question
Annual "smoking attributable mortality" in the U.S. is estimated at
answer
440,000
question
About 90 percent of the more than 40 million former smokers in the U.S. report that
answer
they quit smoking without a treatment program.
question
One of the most consistent and best-documented effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is
answer
low birth weight
question
In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,
answer
Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee
question
Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
answer
40-60 mg (about half the amount in coffee)
question
_____________ is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages.
answer
theophylline
question
The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled
answer
The Women's Petition Against Coffee.
question
Theobroma, the genus name for the cacao tree, is Latin for
answer
food of the gods
question
The largest exporters of coffee to the U.S. are
answer
Colombia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Mexico.
question
Green, black, and oolong tea are all prepared from leaves of
answer
Camellia sinensis
question
In the 18th century, English coffeehouses were referred to as
answer
penny universities
question
The legend of the discovery of coffee relates to
answer
Kaldi and his dancing goats
question
The world's greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in
answer
Turkey
question
All of the xanthines have similar effects. But which one has the greatest overall effect?
answer
caffeine
question
According to current FDA rules on "cola" drinks
answer
they cannot contain more than 6 mg caffeine per ounce
question
One important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is
answer
whether the person is a regular user
question
The most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is
answer
headache
question
In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because
answer
the syrup contained caffiene
question
Often people who drink too much alcohol attempt to "sober up" by drinking coffee. Several studies support the idea that caffeine
answer
is likely to lead to increased arousal, but the drinker is still impaired
question
Caffeine has been shown to be an effective treatment for
answer
migraine headaches
question
The unique xanthine in chocolate is
answer
theobromine
question
Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
answer
doubles the risk of heart attack
question
Caffeine works in the brain by
answer
blocking adenosine receptors
question
The main active ingredient in Red Bull and other energy drinks is
answer
caffeine
question
Caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it is
answer
a vasoconstrictor.
question
The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about _____ after drinking coffee.
answer
2 hours
question
The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
answer
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA's regulatory authority over them.
question
What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer's disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?
answer
Ginkgo biloba
question
Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved OTC weight-control ingredient is
answer
orlistat (alli).
question
The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up
answer
an "Adverse Events Reporting" process.
question
Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,
answer
various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients
question
Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as
answer
food products
question
If you buy a bottle of St. John's wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg
answer
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients
question
The U.S. market for over-the-counter drug products totals about
answer
$18 billion
question
The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is
answer
caffeine
question
The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing __________ be kept "behind the counter," and buyers must show identification and sign for their purchase.
answer
pseudoephedrine
question
SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating
answer
depression
question
Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?
answer
It acts as a cough suppressant
question
NSAID stands for
answer
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
question
Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?
answer
dextromethorphan
question
There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations
answer
dextromethorphan
question
The generic name for Tylenol and Datril is
answer
acetaminophen.
question
Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name
answer
Aspirin
question
Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of
answer
Reye's syndrome
question
The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by
answer
knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names.
question
Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?
answer
dextromethorphan
question
Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)
answer
antipyretic (reduces fever)
question
The acronym GRAS stands for
answer
generally recognized as safe
question
Cold viruses are usually transmitted
answer
by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose
question
The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by
answer
Egyptians, around 1500 BC
question
The 16th century European physician Paracelsus, and later Dr. Thomas Sydenham promoted the use of
answer
laudanum.
question
In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name
answer
Heroin
question
The two major active chemicals in opium are
answer
morphine and codeine.
question
Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for
answer
the opium poppy
question
Heroin became the drug of choice for many opioid users
answer
during the 1920s, because it was easier to smuggle the small amounts needed for an effective dose.
question
One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was
answer
a 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking.
question
By the beginning of the 20th century, a greater percentage of Americans were dependent on opioids than at any time before or since. Opium smoking and medical use of injected pure morphine were important contributors to this, along with
answer
Patent medicines containing opium extracts or morphine
question
Possession of opium, morphine, or heroin without a prescription was made a crime by
answer
a 1915 Supreme Court decision.
question
The Opium War of 1839-1842 resulted, among other things, in
answer
the island of Hong Kong becoming a British possession.
question
"Black tar" is
answer
a name given heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form
question
At the current time, most of the heroin in the U.S. originates from poppy fields in
answer
Colombia and Mexico.
question
Vicodin and OxyContin are examples of
answer
prescription opioids that are being misused at relatively high rates.
question
Which of these opioids is about 100 times as potent as morphine?
answer
fentanyl
question
Naloxone, nalorphine, and naltrexone are examples of
answer
opioid antagonists.
question
Enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins are
answer
three classes of endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine
question
Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability to
answer
treat diarrhea
question
Siegel and his colleagues have shown in animal studies that tolerance to opioids
answer
is partly due to conditioned responses
question
The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to
answer
a bad case of intestinal flu
question
The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of ____________ in developing opioid dependence.
answer
positive reinforcement
question
In a heroin user, negative reinforcement of drug-taking behavior can occur when
answer
withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection
question
Long-term exposure to opioid drugs
answer
has not been clearly shown to produce damage to any tissue or organ system
question
Heroin is more potent than morphine because
answer
it more readily crosses the blood-brain barrier