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Study Guide for test 4 of Psychology

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Compliance
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…Compliance refers to a response — specifically, a submission — made in reaction to a request. The request may be explicit (i.e., foot-in-the-door technique) or implicit (i.e., advertising). The target may or may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way.[1] Social psychology is centered on the idea of social influence. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior, social influence is the driving force behind compliance. It is important that psychologists and ordinary people alike recognize that social influence extends beyond our behavior—to our thoughts, feelings and beliefs—and that it takes on many forms. Persuasion and the gaining of compliance are particularly significant types of social influence since they utilize the respective effect’s power to attain the submission of others. Studying compliance is significant because it is a type of social influence that affects our everyday behavior—especially social interactions. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be studied in depth so that its uses, implications and both its theoretical and experimental approaches may be better understood.[2]
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Foot in the door
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Ask a small request first and then follow it up with a larger request
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Door in the face
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Ask a large request first (expect that it will be refused) then follow it up with a smaller request
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That’s not all
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Offer a deal at an inflated price, but before a person can respond, you offer an incentive, discount or bonus to clinch the deal
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Not so free sample
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Offer a free sample in order to provoke the norm of reciprocity. The norm of reciprocity says that we should treat others as they treat us
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Lowballing
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Make a deal with someone and once they look as though they are ready to comply (or go along with your request), then you change the terms of the request.
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Kitty Genovese
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…Life Born in New York City, the daughter of Rachel (née Petrolli) and Vincent Andronelle Genovese, she was the eldest of five children in a lower-middle class Italian American family and was raised in Brooklyn. After her mother witnessed a murder in the city, the family moved to Connecticut in 1954. Genovese, nineteen at the time and a recent graduate of Prospect Heights High School in Brooklyn, chose to remain in the city, where she had lived for nine years. At the time of her death, she was working as a bar manager at Ev’s Eleventh Hour Sports Bar on Jamaica Avenue and 193rd Street in Hollis, Queens. Genovese, a lesbian, shared her Kew Gardens, Queens apartment at 80-20 Austin Street with her partner, Mary Ann Zielonko.[7][8] Attack The events of Genovese’s death are subject to dispute. Some accounts suggest that her cries for help were heard and ignored by numerous residents at the apartment. Other accounts, as detailed below, suggest that residents did not hear her pleas or did provide assistance or both. The exact details of what happened are unknown. Genovese had driven home from her job working as a bar manager early in the morning of March 13, 1964. Arriving home at about 3:15 am she parked in the Long Island Rail Road parking lot about 100 feet (30 m) from her apartment’s door, located in an alley way at the rear of the building. As she walked towards the building she was approached by Winston Moseley.[2] Frightened, Genovese began to run across the parking lot and towards the front of her building located on Austin Street trying to make it up to the corner towards the major thoroughfare of Lefferts Boulevard. Moseley ran after her, quickly overtook her and stabbed her twice in the back. Genovese screamed, “Oh my God, he stabbed me! Help me!” Her cry was heard by several neighbors but, on a cold night with the windows closed, only a few of them recognized the sound as a cry for help. When Robert Mozer, one of the neighbors, shouted at the attacker, “Let that girl alone!”[9] Moseley ran away and Genovese slowly made her way toward the rear entrance of her apartment building.[10] She was seriously injured, but now out of view of those few who may have had reason to believe she was in need of help. Records of the earliest calls to police are unclear and were certainly not given a high priority by the police. One witness said his father called police after the initial attack and reported that a woman was “beat up, but got up and was staggering around.”[11] Other witnesses observed Moseley enter his car and drive away, only to return ten minutes later. In his car, he changed to a wide-brimmed hat to shadow his face. He systematically searched the parking lot, train station, and an apartment complex. Eventually, he found Genovese who was lying, barely conscious, in a hallway at the back of the building where a locked doorway had prevented her from entering the building.[12] Out of view of the street and of those who may have heard or seen any sign of the original attack, he proceeded to further attack her, stabbing her several more times. Knife wounds in her hands suggested that she attempted to defend herself from him. While she lay dying, he raped her. He stole about $49 from her and left her in the hallway. The attacks spanned approximately half an hour. A few minutes after the final attack a witness, Karl Ross, called the police. Police arrived within minutes of Ross’ call. Genovese was taken away by ambulance at 4:15 am and died en route to the hospital. Later investigation by police and prosecutors revealed that approximately a dozen (but almost certainly not the 38 cited in the Times article) individuals nearby had heard or observed portions of the attack, though none saw or were aware of the entire incident.[4] Only one witness, Joseph Fink, was aware she was stabbed in the first attack, and only Karl Ross was aware of it in the second attack. Many were entirely unaware that an assault or homicide was in progress; some thought that what they saw or heard was a lovers’ quarrel or a drunken brawl or a group of friends leaving the bar when Moseley first approached Genovese.[10] Perpetrator Winston Moseley (born March 2, 1935), an African-American business machine operator and family man,[8] was later apprehended in connection with burglary charges. He confessed not only to the murder of Kitty Genovese, but also to two other murders, both involving sexual assaults. Subsequent psychiatric examinations suggested that Moseley was a necrophile.[13] Moseley gave a confession to the police in which he detailed the attack, corroborating the physical evidence at the scene. His motive for the attack was simply “to kill a woman.” Moseley preferred to kill women because, he said, “they were easier and didn’t fight back”.[14] Moseley stated that he got up that night around 2:00 am, leaving his wife asleep at home, and drove around to find a victim. He spied Genovese and followed her to the parking lot.[15] Moseley also testified at his own trial where he further described the attack (along with two other murders and numerous attacks), leaving no question that he was the killer.[14] He was convicted of murder. On Monday, June 15, 1964, when the death sentence was announced by the jury foreman “The [court]room erupted into loud spontaneous applause and cheers.” When calm had returned, the judge added, “I don’t believe in capital punishment, but when I see this monster, I wouldn’t hesitate to pull the switch myself!”[14] On June 1, 1967, the New York Court of Appeals found that Moseley should have been able to argue that he was “medically insane” at the sentencing hearing when the trial court found that he had been legally sane, and the initial death sentence was reduced to an indeterminate sentence/lifetime imprisonment.[16] In 1968, during a trip to a Buffalo, New York, hospital for surgery on a self-inflicted injury, Moseley overpowered a guard and beat him to the point that his eyes were bloody. He then took a baseball bat and swung it at the closest person to him and took five hostages, raping one of them in front of her husband—actions for which Moseley would later blame his parents[17]—before he was recaptured after a two-day manhunt.[14] He also participated in the 1971 Attica Prison riots.[18] In the late 1970s Moseley obtained a B.A. in Sociology in prison.[14] Moseley’s first parole hearing in 1984 included his defense that “For a victim outside, it’s a one-time or one-hour or one-minute affair, but for the person who’s caught, it’s forever.”[17] Moseley remains in prison after being denied parole a fifteenth time in November 2011.[19][20] Moseley’s next parole hearing is scheduled for November 2013.[21] Public reaction Many saw the story of Genovese’s murder as an example of the callousness or apathy supposedly prevalent in New York among other larger cities in the United States or humanity in general. Much of this framing of the event came in reaction to an investigative article[22] in The New York Times written by Martin Gansberg and published on March 27, two weeks after the murder. The article bore the headline “Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police.” The public view of the story crystallized around a quote from the article by an unidentified neighbor who saw part of the attack but deliberated, before finally getting another neighbor to call the police, saying “I didn’t want to get involved.” Science-fiction author and cultural provocateur Harlan Ellison, in articles published in 1970 and 1971 in the Los Angeles Free Press and in Rolling Stone, referred to the witnesses as “thirty-six mother****ers”[23] and stating that they “stood by and watched” Genovese “get knifed to death right in front of them, and wouldn’t make a move”[24] and that “thirty-eight people watched” Genovese “get knifed to death in a New York street”.[25] In an article in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (June 1988), later reprinted in his book Harlan Ellison’s Watching, Ellison referred to the murder as “witnessed by thirty-eight neighbors,” citing reports he claimed to have read that one man turned up his radio so that he would not hear Genovese’s screams. Ellison says that the reports attributed the “get involved” quote to nearly all of the thirty-eight who supposedly witnessed the attack. While Genovese’s neighbors were vilified by the articles, “thirty-eight onlookers who did nothing” is a misconception. The New York Times article begins: For more than half an hour thirty-eight respectable, law-abiding citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens. The lead is dramatic but factually inaccurate. A 2007 study found many of the purported facts about the murder to be unfounded.[26] The study found “no evidence for the presence of 38 witnesses, or that witnesses observed the murder, or that witnesses remained inactive”[27]. None of the witnesses observed the attacks in their entirety. Because of the layout of the complex and the fact that the attacks took place in different locations, no witness saw the entire sequence of events. Most only heard portions of the incident without realizing its seriousness, a few saw only small portions of the initial assault, and no witnesses directly saw the final attack and rape, in an exterior hallway, which resulted in Genovese’s death.[1] Additionally, after the initial attack punctured her lungs, leading to her eventual death from asphyxiation, it is unlikely that she was able to scream at any volume.[28] Nevertheless, media attention to the Genovese murder led to reform of the NYPD’s telephone reporting system; the system in place at the time of the assault was often hostile to callers, inefficient and directed individuals to the incorrect department. The intense press coverage also led to serious investigation of the bystander effect by psychologists and sociologists. In addition, some communities organized Neighborhood Watch programs and the equivalent for apartment buildings to aid people in distress. Psychological research prompted by the murder The lack of reaction of numerous neighbors watching the scene prompted research into diffusion of responsibility and the bystander effect. Social psychologists John Darley and Bibb Latané started this line of research, showing that contrary to common expectations, larger numbers of bystanders decrease the likelihood that someone will step forward and help a victim. The reasons include the fact that onlookers see that others are not helping either, that onlookers believe others will know better how to help, and that onlookers feel uncertain about helping while others are watching. The Kitty Genovese case thus became a classic feature of social psychology textbooks. In September 2007, the American Psychologist published an examination of the factual basis of coverage of the Kitty Genovese murder in psychology textbooks. The three authors concluded that the story is more parable than fact, largely because of inaccurate newspaper coverage at the time of the incident.[10] According to the authors, “despite this absence of evidence, the story continues to inhabit our introductory social psychology textbooks (and thus the minds of future social psychologists).” One interpretation of the parable is that the drama and ease of teaching the exaggerated story makes it easier for professors to capture student attention and interest. Feminist psychologist Frances Cherry has suggested the interpretation of the murder as an issue of bystander intervention is incomplete[29]. She has pointed to additional research such as that of Borofsky[30] and Shotland[31] demonstrating that people, especially at that time, were unlikely to intervene if they believed a man was attacking his wife or girlfriend. She has suggested that the issue might be better understood in terms of male/female power relations. Aftermath
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Bystander effect
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.Bystander effect – referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases. ..
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Diffusion of responsibility
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…Diffusion of responsibility – occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility. Researchers Latané and Darley found that people who were alone were more likely to help in an emergency than people who were with others. One bystander cannot diffuse responsibility
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5 steps in helping behavior
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…Noticing Defining an emergency Taking responsibility Planning a course of action Taking action
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Mood of bystanders
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…Mood of the bystanders People in a good mood more likely to help (but only if it doesn’t destroy their good mood
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gender of the victim
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…Women are more likely to receive help than men if the bystander is male, but not if the bystander is female.
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psychical attractiveness
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…Physically attractive people are more likely to be helped.
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victims who look like they deserve what is happening
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…Victims who look like “they deserve what is happening” are less likely to be helped.
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personality
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…the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
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character
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…value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior
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temperament
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…the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.
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Different perspective views of personality
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…Psychoanalytic Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory) Humanistic Trait perspectives
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Sigmund Freud Cultural background
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…Founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology. Europe during the Victorian age. Men were understood to be unable to control their “animal” desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched. Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges. Backdrop for this theory
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conscious mind
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…level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious.
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Preconcious
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…level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
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Unconscious mind
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…level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness. Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue.
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Freudian slip
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…A Freudian slip, also called parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory, or physical action that is interpreted as occurring due to the interference of some unconscious (“dynamically repressed”), subdued wish, conflict, or train of thought. The concept is thus part of classical psychoanalysis. Slips of the tongue and the pen are the classical parapraxes, but psychoanalytic theory also embraces such phenomena as misreadings, mishearings, temporary forgettings, and the mislaying and losing of objects.
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id
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…Id – part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. Libido – the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior. Pleasure principle – principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences
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pleasure principle
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…Pleasure principle – principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences
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ego
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…Ego – part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical. Reality principle – principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
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reality principle
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…Reality principle – principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
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Super ego
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…Superego – part of the personality that acts as a moral center. Ego ideal – part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior. Conscience – part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
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conscience
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…Conscience – part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
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denial
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……refusing to acknowledge a threatening situation
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repression
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…pushing threatening or conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory
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rationalization
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…making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior
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projection
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…placing one’s unacceptable thoughts onto others as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself
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reaction formation
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…forming a emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts
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displacement
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…expressing feeling that would be threatening
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regression
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…falling back on child back patters as a way of coping with stressful situations
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identification
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…trying to become like someone else to deal with one’s one anxiety
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compensation
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…trying to make up for by becoming surpior in some area’s area’s in which a lack is perceived by becoming Superior in some other area
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sublimation
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…turning socially unacceptable urges into acceptable behavior
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Oral stage
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…Oral stage – first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated
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Anal stage
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…Anal stage – second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops. Anal expulsive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile. Anal retentive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
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Phallic stage
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…Phallic stage – third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops. Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent. Identification – defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety
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Latency
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…Latency – fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
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Gential
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…Genital – sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
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fixation
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…Fixation – disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage
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unconcious
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..The unconscious mind (often simply called the unconscious) is all the processes of the mind which are not available to consciousness. The term unconscious mind was coined by the 18th century German romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling and later introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The concept gained prominence due to the influence of Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Unconscious phenomena have been held to include repressed feelings, automatic skills, unacknowledged perceptions, thoughts, habits and automatic reactions, complexes, hidden phobias and desires. Within psychoanalysis the cognitive processes of the unconscious are considered to manifest in dreams in a symbolical form. Thus the unconscious mind can be seen as the source of dreams and automatic thoughts (those that appear without any apparent cause), the repository of forgotten memories (that may still be accessible to consciousness at some later time), and the locus of implicit knowledge (the things that we have learned so well that we do them without thinking). It has been argued that consciousness is influenced by other parts of the mind. These include unconsciousness as a personal habit, being unaware, and intuition. Terms related to semi-consciousness include: awakening, implicit memory, subliminal messages, trances, hypnagogia, and hypnosis. While sleep, sleep walking, dreaming, delirium and comas may signal the presence of unconscious processes, these processes are not the unconscious mind itself, but rather symptoms. Some critics have doubted the existence of the unconscious.
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collective unconscious
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…Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, coined by Carl Jung. It is proposed to be a part of the unconscious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Jung distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, in that the personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual, while the collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species.
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archetypes
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…An archetype (play /ˈɑrkɪtaɪp/) is a universally understood symbol, term,[1] or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated. Archetypes are often used in myths and storytelling across different cultures. In psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behavior. In philosophy, archetypes have, since Plato, referred to ideal forms of the perceived or sensible objects or types. In the analysis of personality, the term archetype is often broadly used to refer to: A stereotype— a personality type observed multiple times, especially an oversimplification of such a type. An epitome— a personality type exemplified, especially the “greatest” such example. A literary term to express details. Archetype refers to a generic version of a personality. In this sense, “mother figure” may be considered an archetype, and may be identified in various characters with otherwise distinct (non-generic) personalities. Archetypes are likewise supposed to have been present in folklore and literature for thousands of years, including prehistoric artwork. The use of archetypes to illuminate personality and literature was advanced by Carl Jung early in the 20th century, who suggested the existence of universal contentless forms that channel experiences and emotions, resulting in recognizable and typical patterns of behavior with certain probable outcomes. Archetypes are cited as important to both ancient mythology and modern narratives.
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Alder theory different form feuds
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Karen Horney Theory different form freuds
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…Horney, together with fellow psychoanalyst Alfred Adler, formed the Neo-Freudian discipline. While Horney acknowledged and agreed with Freud on many issues, she was also critical of him on several key beliefs. Like many who held opposing views with Freud, Horney felt that sex and aggression were not the primary constituents for determining personality. Also Freud’s notion of “penis envy” in particular was subject to genital criticism by Horney.[12] She thought Freud had merely stumbled upon women’s jealousy of men’s generic power in the world. Horney accepted that penis envy might occur occasionally in neurotic women, but stated that “womb envy” occurs just as much in men: Horney felt that men were envious of a woman’s ability to bear children. The degree to which men are driven to success may be merely a substitute for the fact that they cannot carry, nurture and bear children. Horney was bewildered by psychiatrists’ tendency to place so much emphasis on the male sexual organ. Horney also reworked the Freudian Oedipal complex of the sexual elements, claiming that the clinging to one parent and jealousy of the other was simply the result of anxiety, caused by a disturbance in the parent-child relationship. Despite these variances with the prevalent Freudian view, Horney strove to reformulate Freudian thought, presenting a holistic, humanistic view of the individual psyche which placed much emphasis on cultural and social differences worldwide. Theory of the self Horney also shared Abraham Maslow’s view that self-actualization is something that all people strive for. By “self” she understood the core of one’s own being and potential.[10] Horney believed that if we have an accurate conception of our own self, then we are free to realize our potential and achieve what we wish, within reasonable boundaries. Thus, she believed that self-actualization is the healthy person’s aim through life—as opposed to the neurotic’s clinging to a set of key needs. According to Horney we can have two views of our self: the “real self” and the “ideal self”. The real self is who and what we actually are. The ideal self is the type of person we feel that we should be. The real self has the potential for growth, happiness, will power, realization of gifts, etc., but it also has deficiencies. The ideal self is used as a model to assist the real self in developing its potential and achieving self-actualization. (Engler 125) But it is important to know the differences between our ideal and real self. The neurotic person’s self is split between an idealized self and a real self. As a result, neurotic individuals feel that they somehow do not live up to the ideal self. They feel that there is a flaw somewhere in comparison to what they “should” be. The goals set out by the neurotic are not realistic, or indeed possible. The real self then degenerates into a “despised self”, and the neurotic person assumes that this is the “true” self. Thus, the neurotic is like a clock’s pendulum, oscillating between a fallacious “perfection” and a manifestation of self-hate. Horney referred to this phenomenon as the “tyranny of the shoulds” and the neurotic’s hopeless “search for glory”.[14] She concluded that these ingrained traits of the psyche forever prevent an individual’s potential from being actualized unless the cycle of neurosis is somehow broken, through treatment or otherwise.
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Erick Erikson different form freuds
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…Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality.2 If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure. Psychosocial Stage 1 – Trust vs. Mistrust The first stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.2 Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Psychosocial Stage 2 – Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The second stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.2 Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson’s reasoning was quite different then that of Freud’s. Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Psychosocial Stage 3 – Initiative vs. Guilt During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.3 Psychosocial Stage 4 – Industry vs. Inferiority This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. Psychosocial Stage 5 – Identity vs. Confusion During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. Psychosocial Stage 6 – Intimacy vs. Isolation This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression. Psychosocial Stage 7 – Generativity vs. Stagnation During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. Psychosocial Stage 8 – Integrity vs. Despair This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
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Criticisms of freuds theory
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…UNTESTABLE – All Freud’s theories are built upon their own INTERNAL LOGIC which cannot be proved either way. Internally consistent, yes, but externally un-provable. Thus, little or no scientific worth. NO PREDICTIVE VALUE – Even if we know that someone had no father figure against whom to compete for his mother’s affection, what does that tell us about his future behaviour? TINY SAMPLE – Theory not based on a large sample of people, or tested under experimental conditions with control groups, etc. Freud’s patients were largely wealthy hysterical Victorian middle-class women in Vienna in the late 1800s. Therefore, from such a narrow group, the theory is applied universally. It is presented as an all-encompassing male-centred theory. NEOLOGISMS – Freud invented many new terms, but rarely defined exactly what he meant – thus open to such wide interpretation (but some would see that as its great attraction). The more vague the terms, then the more people are free to apply them to their own needs. METAPHYSICAL – abstract throughout – not testable via empirical methods. PERSONAL PROJECTION of Freud’s own life, fantasies and conflict with his own father (Oedipus Complex). UNDERSTANDING the UNCONSCIOUS – Freud deals with the Unconscious mind which he claims can only be understood through dreams, slips of the tongue, etc. But, do we really understand how the Conscious Mind itself works? Answer: No. Therefore, how can something which does not understand itself, begin to interpret what the Unconscious Mind generates (Khristnamurti)?
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trait theories
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…Trait theories – theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior. Trait – a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.
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traits Allport find
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…Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system.
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Cateel discover
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…Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
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surface traits and source traits
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…Surface traits – aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person. Source traits – the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality. Example: Introversion – dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation
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psychopathology
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Psychopathology is the study of mental illness, mental distress, and abnormal/maladaptive behavior. The term is most commonly used within psychiatry where pathology refers to disease processes. Abnormal psychology is a similar term used more frequently in the non-medical field of psychology. Psychopathology should not be confused with psychopathy, a genetic subtype of antisocial personality disorder. Many different professions may be involved in studying mental illness or distress. Most notably, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are particularly interested in this area and may either be involved in clinical treatment of mental illness, or research into the origin, development and manifestations of such states, or often, both. More widely, many different specialties may be involved in the study of psychopathology. For example, a neuroscientist may focus on brain changes related to mental illness. Therefore, someone who is referred to as a psychopathologist, may be one of any number of professions who have specialized in studying this area. Psychiatrists in particular are interested in descriptive psychopathology, which has the aim of describing the symptoms and syndromes of mental illness. This is both for the diagnosis of individual patients (to see whether the patient’s experience fits any pre-existing classification), or for the creation of diagnostic systems (such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) which define exactly which signs and symptoms should make up a diagnosis, and how experiences and behaviours should be grouped in particular diagnoses (e.g. clinical depression, paraphrenia, paranoia, schizophrenia). Before diagnosing a psychological disorder, Clinicians must study the themes, also known as abnormalities, within psychological disorders. The most prominent themes consist of: deviance, distress, dysfunction and danger. These themes are known as the 4 D’s, which define abnormality. Description of the 4 D’s when defining abnormality: Deviance: this term describes the idea that specific thoughts, behaviours and emotions are considered deviate when they are unacceptable or not common in society. Clinicians must, however, remember that minority groups are not always deemed deviate just because they may not have anything in common with other groups. Therefore, we define an individual’s actions as deviate or abnormal when his or her behaviour is deemed unacceptable by the culture he or she belongs to. Distress: this term accounts for negative feelings by the individual with the disorder. He or she may feel deeply troubled and affected by their illness. Dysfunction: this term involves maladaptive behaviour that impairs the individuals ability to perform normal daily functions such as getting ready for work in the morning, or driving a car. Such maladaptive behaviours prevent the individual from living a normal, healthy lifestyle. However, we must remember that a person’s behaviour, who is acting dysfunctional, is not always caused by a disorder. Dysfunctional behaviour may be voluntary, such as engaging in a hunger strike. Danger: this term involves dangerous or violent behaviour directed at the individual, or others in the environment. An example of dangerous behaviour that may suggest a psychological disorder is engaging in suicidal activity.
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Hippocrates explain psychological disorders
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…Hippocrates was the first to point out brain as the root cause for these abnormal psychological personality disorders. Mentally ill patients were treated as outcasts and were socially abolished. They were kept under inhumane conditions and were treated with demonological methods. Patients died or were permanently disabled due to the cruel methods adopted for treating personality disorders. The Salem Witch Trial in 1692, is the proof of many innocent people with or without mental disorders being sentenced to prison or death. Bethlehem Hospital in London was the first hospital to be converted into a mental asylum. Philippe Pinet (1745-1826), a Frenchman who was then the chief physician at La Bicetre asylum in Paris, believed the mental disorder patients as sick who needed kindness and care. He is one of the great humanitarians who ordered to remove chains from patients at the Paris asylum for insane women. The other humanistic psychotherapists were Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Ivan Pavlov, J.B Watson and B.F. Skinner.
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trepanning
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…Trepanning, also known as trephination, trephining or making a burr hole, is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases. It may also refer to any “burr” hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone. Evidence of trepanation has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times onward. Cave paintings indicate that people believed the practice would cure epileptic seizures, migraines, and mental disorders.[1] The bone that was trepanned was kept by the prehistoric people and may have been worn as a charm to keep evil spirits away. Evidence also suggests that trepanation was primitive emergency surgery after head wounds[2] to remove shattered bits of bone from a fractured skull and clean out the blood that often pools under the skull after a blow to the head. Such injuries were typical for primitive weaponry such as slings and war clubs.[3] There is some contemporary use of the term. In modern eye surgery, a trephine instrument is used in corneal transplant surgery. The procedure of drilling a hole through a fingernail or toenail is also known as trephination. It is performed by a physician or surgeon to relieve the pain associated with a subungual hematoma (blood under the nail); a small amount of blood is expressed through the hole and the pain associated with the pressure is partially alleviated.
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abnormal
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…Not conforming to rule or system; deviating from the usual or normal type. [quotations â–¼] Of or pertaining to behaviour that deviates from norms of social propriety or accepted standards of mental health
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abnormality explained using biological, psychodynamic, behavorist, cognitive , biopsychosocial perspectives
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DSM- IV-TR it’s purpose
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…The DSM, or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, is an official guideline for the diagnosis of psychological disorders. Clinicians, researchers and psychologists use this manual as a reference guide to diagnose psychological disorders. For a diagnosis to be made, 2 levels of criteria within the DSM must be met. First, the disordered behaviour must originate within the person, and it must not be a reaction due to external factors. Second, the disorder must be involuntary, meaning that the individual cannot physically or mentally control their symptoms. The DSM uses a Multiaxial system of classification, which requires the individual to be placed on 5 separate axes which describe possible mental health factors. Most disorders are recorded on axis I, which are state dependent. Axis II describes disorders that are trait dependent. Axis III describes current physical conditions, Axis IV describes psychosocial or environmental stressors, and lastly, Axis V is used to discuss the individuals global assessment of functioning. Axis I: Most psychological disorders Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation Axis III: General medical condition Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental stressors Axis V: Global assessment of functioning Examples of Disorders classified within the DSM include: Major Depressive Disorder is a mood disorder defined by symptoms of loss of motivation, decreased mood, lack of energy and thoughts of suicide. Bipolar Disorders are mood disorders characterized by depressive and manic episodes of varying lengths and degrees. Dysthymia is a mood disorder similar to depression. Characterized by a persistent low mood, Dysthymia is a less debilitating form of depression with no break in ordinary functioning.
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Five axes
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…The DSM-IV-TR uses a five level diagnostic system to classify illnesses and disorders. When considered together, these 5 levels give the treatment provider a complete diagnosis that includes factors influencing your psychiatric condition. This is important for effective treatment planning. The five levels of the DSM are called “axes” and are defined as follows: Axis I is reserved for clinical disorders and developmental and learning disorders. Disorders that may be present on Axis I include: Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Social Phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Specific Phobia Axis II is for personality disorders or mental retardation. Disorders that may appear on Axis II include: Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Axis III is for medical and/or physical conditions or disorders. For example: Hyperthyroidism Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) Axis IV indicates factors contributing to, or affecting, the current psychiatric disorder and treatment outcomes. These include: Lack of an adequate support system Social issues Educational problems Problems with work Financial difficulties Legal problems Other psychosocial and environmental problems Axis V is for the GAF or global assessment functioning. This is a 100-point scale that the mental health professional uses to describe the patient’s overall level of performance in usual daily activities and social, occupational, academic and interpersonal functioning. Source: American Psychiatric Association. “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision” 2000 Washington, DC: Author. Related Articles
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Percentage of adults over 18 suffer from mental disorder
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…About 20 percent of American adults suffer some sort of mental illness each year, and about 5 percent experience a serious disorder that disrupts work, family or social life, according to a government report released Thursday.
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psychology students syndrome
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…Psychology Student Syndrome There’s a major issue with being a psych student, especially one who’s taken abnormal psychology. There’s a tendency called psychology student syndrome, also known as”generalized disorder disorder.” It goes basically like this: You learn about a disorder, you suddenly recognized parts of yourself in it. And you totally flip a ****. For example, last year I learned about borderline personality disorder and what it consisted of. The definition in the DSM is as follows: Pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity (5 or more): Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships Alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation Identity disturbance; unstable sense of self Impulsivity in at least 2 self-damaging ways (sex, spending) Recurrent suicidal, self-mutilating behaviors (inc. gestures) Affective instability, reactivity of mood Chronic feelings of emptiness Inappropriate expressions of anger Transient, stress-related ideation, dissociative symptoms I, of course, instantly starting if it could apply to me. Dumb, right? I don’t really match the symptoms very well. But when you start looking at them loosely, it gets kind of scary. Have I ever frantically been worried about being abandoned? Well, yeah – that was like half of high school there, wondering why people actually wanted to be friends with me and wondering when they would leave (because, truthfully, I’ve never had friends that lasted very long. [uber gay] takes the prize – ten years, man. I can hardly believe it). My whole sudden extreme obsessions/crushes on people seemed to fit bullet number 2. Also, I’ve been known to totally love something, then hate it (Twilight, anyone? But I think that’s a special case). The unstable sense of self… that’s the one that worries me. I remember talking about this in AP Psych, about how some people think Marilyn Monroe was borderline because she wanted to be like the characters she portrayed; she wanted to become who she was playing. Some theorize that she didn’t have an actual sense of self, so she had to envelope herself in a fictional persona to ground herself in a personality. This freaked me out as a teenager, mainly because I was changing so much. Who I was as a person changed from year to year (well, it still does in some ways) and nothing felt consistent. Also, it doesn’t help that when people ask me to tell them something about myself, I sort of freeze (because the question is so ponderous – where to even begin?) I think I misinterpret this as NOT having a clear personality, when in fact I just have a slightly complex one – and that I’m not good at spontaneously giving personal answers (seriously adding in the new blog description up there took like half an hour tonight. Also, this blog has changed like ten million times… God, don’t even start, [L Maga]… don’t even start). I could go on, describing how I’ve felt the semblance of all the other symptoms at some point in my life. But I’ll spare you. But that’s the key issue here – these are all things that people may feel at some point. We’re all human and have similar experiences, after all. Having a disorder of this nature means these symptoms are experienced in the EXTREME, that totally interrupt your life and may be harmful to yourself and/or others. That’s something my professor emphasized on the first day of Abnormal Psych. But it’s easy to forget that when your reading your textbook and, suddenly, a description of a disorder sounds exactly like what happened to you last Thursday. It’s a slippery, slippery slope. So be nice to psych majors – there’s a reason why some of us are a little weird (but do stop freaking out that we’re constantly psychoanalyzing you. Don’t be silly – we aren’t. We’re just doing it to ourselves :p).
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Obstacles to help
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…1) People are sometimes in a hurry. 2)Stimulus overload 3) Social Construction of reality 4)Difusson of Responsibility 5)NOt sure how to provide assitance 6) Stage fright