What is the energy difference btwn
n=3 , n=4
and
n=1,n=2
Include why?


n=3 and n=4 has a smaller energy difference
(they are farther away from nucleus)
compared to
n=1 and n=2
(closer to nucleus)


define the quantum number ‘ n’,
what does a larger n indicate?


principal quantum number that has a integer value
^n= ^energy^ oribtal radius
*remmeber high energy means more unstable (more likely to engage in chemical rxns they have further from nucleus)



decides the :
shape and number of subshells within a given principal energy level (shell)



n limits l !
For any given value of n, ‘l ‘can only have values in the range of :
0 to (n1)


If n=1, what does that mean in refernce to:
# subshells
value of ‘l’?


n=1
1 subshell
(so the 1st principal energy level has only 1 subshell)
l= 0 (only)
(s)


If n=2, what does that mean in refernce to:
# subshells
value of ‘l’?


2 subshells
(the 2nd prinipal energy level)
‘l ‘= 0 and 1
(s) and (p)


If n=3, what does that mean in refernce to:
# subshells
value of ‘l’and name the oribtal you are in


3 shells
(3 principal energy level)
l=0, 1, 2
(s, p, d )


If n=4, what does that mean in refernce to:
# subshells
value of ‘l’?


4 subshells
l: 0 (s), 1 (p), 2 (d) ,3 (f) *remember (n1)= l


The maximum number of the electrons within the any given subshell?
in reference to n& l?



What does the quantum mumber m_{l} mean? 

tells the particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is highly likely to be found at a given time.
(this tells us that , s shell has 1, p shell has 3, etc)


What are the values for m_{l}? 

integers btwn :
l to + l
including 0
ex: if l=1
(1,0,1)


Give the l,m_{l } values for the s oribtal 

l=0
ml=0
* remember the s shell has 1 oribital


Give the l,m_{l } values for the p oribtal 

l=1
ml= 1 ,0,1
the p shell oribtal has ‘3’oribtals


give # oribitals in the following subshells:
s,p,d,f


s: 1 orbitals
p: 3
d: 5
f:7
(as you go to next level you add 2)


What does the quantum number m_{s} stand for: 

magnetic spin of the ELECTRON
has values of : +1/2 to – 1/2


Give the formula how to calculate the energy value of a quantum 

E= hf
where h= 6.626 x 10^{34} (Planks)
f= frequency of a photon
(could also be v)


1.Give formula for the frequency of a photon
2. What is the unit for the wavelength
and give the conversion to makeit work in the equation.


f= c
λ
c= 3 x 10^{8}^{ }m/s
(speed of light )
λ= wavelength (nm)
need to mult by 10^{9}


Give Avagrados constant
Planks


avagrados: 6.023 x 10^{23}
(there is a holiday celebrated at 6:02,time is always positive)
planks: 6.626 x 10 ^{34}
(down the plank)


Define Hund’s rule
Pauli’s exclusion principal


Hunds: every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with 1 electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
↑↑ , ↑↑ ,(the blue came first)
Pauli: states that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers. The first three may be similar but the four quantum number must be different.


Which elements on periodic table have half filled orbitals in order to decrease their stablilites? 


Fix this config for Cr so that is more stable:
[Ar] 3d^{4} 4s^{2}



Fix this config for Cu so that is more stable:
[Ar] 3d^{9} 4s^{2}


[Ar] 3d^{10} 4s^{1}
its adding to that big d instead of having more e furhther from nucleus, makes it more reactive


Fix this config for Ag so that is more stable:
[Kr] 4d^{9} 5s^{2}



fix this config so that is more stable:
[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{9} 6s^{2}


[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6s^{1} 

Define ‘l’
Define’m_{l}‘
Give the example of the p oribital


l: # of subshells and shape for a value of ‘n’
m_{l}: tells what specific oribital where you can find an electron in a subshell.
ex
n=2
l= 0,1 (2 subshells)
ml=1 ,0,3 (3 oribitals)


atomic weight def
give unit


weight of an element as an average of the isotopes of a particular element
unit:grams per mole



a different form of the same element (will have a charge b/c it has gained or lossed electrons)
but has a different # of neutrons
do not confused with cations and anions (these happen with rxns etc)


Do isotopes have different # of protons or electrons or both? 

no isotopes only differ in the # of neutrons 

atomic emission spectrum def 

spectrum of light created when an atom’s electron’s fall to to their ground state from a higher energy level
*remember this causes energy to be released (emitted).


atomic absorption spectrum def 

spectrum of light created when an atom’s electron’s are excited to higher energy levels
*remember this requires energy to be absorbed






heisenberg uncertanity principal def 

it is impossible to calc the:
momentum & position of an electron at the SAME time
(remember you can calculate the momentum and velocity at the same time)


is an electron always static (referring an energy levels)? 

no, even when an electron is in its ground state the electron is not completly static. 
