Strategic communications exam 2

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promote brand recall
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-Gets consumer to recall brand name -Use of: repetition ads, slogan ads/ music -Ex: HEAD-ON, nike “just do it”
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instill brand preference
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-Get consumers to like and prefer the brand over the other brands -Use of: humor ads, sexual innuendo -Ex: Hardy’s Carl Jr car wash ad
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scare the consumer into action
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-use of: threat/fear appeals -Get consumers to use a product by instilling fear -threat may stimulate persuasion and may even undermine it -some people cope with fear by sleeping, eating, smoking, playing bball
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Induce anxiety to change behavior
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Use of: anxiety ads -to get consumers to make a purchase decision by playing to their anxieties -Anxiety ads : imply that there is a danger, and to avoid that danger you should purchase this product (Zerex anti-freeze for cars)
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Transform consumer experience
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-Creates feeling, image, or mood that is activated when the consumer uses the product or service Use of: Transformational ads: associates the experience with the product Example: Kodak film, halmark cards
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Situate the brand socially
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-give brand meaning by placing it in desirable social context Use of: “Slice of Life ads” which depict the ideal user in typical usage situation gaining benefits and satisfaction from the brand – How people use products in everyday experiences
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Define the brand image
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– create an image for the brand by relying on visuals rather than hard product information Use of image ads: give off an idea or an ideal rather than facts. -Fragrance ads
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persuading the consumer
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-Convince consumers to buy product through high engagement discourse -Use of Hard sells: advertising in which simple associative bonds are made between brand to get the product -effective when product possesses a point/differences that is important to consumers -Example: Rolaids relief for stomach- advertisers prefer to use hard sell to persuade the consumer rather than spend ad dollars trying to entertain the consumer -Critiques argue that its free advertising for competitors
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invoke a direct response
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lots of paid programming, QVC Use of demonstrations and direct response ads
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Media mix
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-the combination of communication channels your business can use to meet its marketing objectives -typically these include newspapers, radio, TV, billboards, websites, email, direct mail, the Internet and social media, such as facebook or Twitter
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Media placement
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paying for ad time in a particular media vehicle
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Media vehicle
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specific methods of media used by companies to deliver advertising messages to targeted customers – selecting the right mix of media vehicles is critical to reaching your audience and getting them to respond well to your ads
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Media buyer
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the role of the one who will negotiate, purchase and monitor advertising space and airtime on behalf of clients – the aim is to reach the highest number of people in the target audience at the lowest possible cost – roles tend to be based in advertising and media agencies
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Geo-targeting
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the method of determining the geolocation of a website visitor anddelivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location, such as country, region/ state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, ip address, ISP or other criteria
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Testimonials
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a formal statement testifying to someones character and qualifications, a public tribute to someone and to their achievements
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Scarcity appeal
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there is a scarcity appeal when consumers buy a particular product because of a limitation which can be in he number of products available or that the product is only available for a limited time – Example: limited nike shoes
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Frequency/ effective frequency
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the NUMBER OF TIMES an audience has an opportunity to be exposed to media vehicle/vehicles in a specific time span – some argue that the number of people exposed to a tv ad may be 30% less than the program itself (people leave, make food, fast forward) Effective frequency: how many ad exposures are necessary: 7 as a minimum 10 years ago, now in between 12-24 times to be effective
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Reach/ effective reach
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the percentage of DIFFERENT HOMES OR PEOPLE exposed to a media vehicle(s) at least once during a specific period of time Example: “75” percentage of population you’re tying to target- “i want 75% of that population to be exposed to the message Effective reach: more ambiguous, achieving awareness requires reach- w new products HIGH reach is desired
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Scheduling
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the primary objective of scheduling is to time promotional efforts so they will coincide with the highest potential buying times
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pulsing
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a combination of flighting and continuity… continuity is maintained, but at certain times promo efforts are stepped up Example: automobile industry- advertises throughout year, but steps up in April (tax refunds) and September (new models coming out
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Continuity
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refers to a continuous pattern of advertising which may mean every day Example:food, products, laundry, detergents, other products used daily
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Flighting
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employs a less regular schedule, with intermittent periods of advertising.. some periods lots of ads, other periods no advertising Example: snow skis
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Gross rating point
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measure of the impact or intensity of a media plan. these are calculated by measuring the opportunity to see (OTS). by increasing chances to see, increases impact
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Cost per thousand (CPM)
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this is the dollar cost of reaching 1,000 members of the media vehicles audience
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Spot television/ advertising
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purchased by manufacturers (General Mills) local spots: purchased by retailers: giant eagle When a spot/local advertising is appropriate: advertiser is planning regional campaign or advertiser is has limited resources to advertise in selected markets
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Network television/ advertising
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beaming commercials from a single location to network affiliates across the country – appropriate when the business distributions a product nationally and is trying to reach broad target audiences
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Cable television
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used by 60% of the population, channels have 20% primetime audience – cable has the ability to reach selected targets (similar to narrowcasting) using stations like ESPN, MTV, Cartoon Network – programming is less desirable than major networks
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Syndicated television
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advertisers may reach viewers by advertising on syndicated programs – programs are created and sold to network affiliates, cable stations, and independent stations – syndicated tv advertising is based on the idea that people that are loyal to shows, not stations Example: friends
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Catalogue marketing
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a sales technique used by businesses to group many items together in a printed piece or an online store, hoping to sell at least one item to the recipient – consumers buy directly from the catalog sender by phone, return envelop or other online using information in the catalog
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public relations
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coordinated attempt to create a favorable product image in the mind of the public by supporting certain activities or programs , publishing significant news, and obtaining favorable publicity (radio, TV, unpaid for selling company) Example: Nike and Bo Jackson PR
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Objectives of public relations
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– create favorable public image along with fix negative image, raise the company’s image
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image-building function
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an effort to positively influence the views that consumers and other stakeholders have about a company – uses cause-related marketing and green marketing -this is anything that can enhance image, normally PR functions image building activities: empowerment of employees, charitable contributions, sponsoring local events, selling environmentally safe products, etc.
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Press release
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an official statement issued to newspapers giving information on a particular matter
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Feature story
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a newspaper or magazine article or report of a person, event, an aspect of a major even etc -often having a personal slant and written in an individual style
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company newsletter
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newsletter for a company
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press conferences
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an interview given to journalists by a prominent person in order to make an announcement or answer questions
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publicity
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the notice or attention given to something or someone by the media; the giving out of information about a person, product, or company for advertising or promotional purposes
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advocacy advertising
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concerned with propagating ideas and clarifying controversial social issues of public importance in a manner that supports the interests of the sponsor – addresses social, business, or environmental issues
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cause-related advertising
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a program whereby a firm ties a marketing program to a clarity in order to generate goodwill fun fact: american businesses pay over 600 million dollars each year for the right to use a NPO’s name or logo in company advertising and marketing programs
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media selection
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effectively mixing advertising media is an important part of designing quality advertising Under what conditions do you select each media: – goals of reach, frequency, OTS, gross rating points, effecive rating points, cost, continuity and gross impressions -takes place in conjunction with the message design and within the framework of the overall IMC approach -company spends enough money to find the target audience and does not waste funds by overwhelming them with the same message
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Media planning
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enables the marketer to communicate in the most effective way to the largest number of potential customers at a low cost
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Radio- advantages and disadvantages
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advantages: -shortest lead time disadvantages: -less people listen to the radio -doesnt use all the senses- only hearing ADD MORE
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newspapers- advantages and disadvantages
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Advantages: -penetration: newspapers read routinely in about 70% of american homes -geographic selectivity: reach a well-defined geographic target audience; newspapers allow advertisers to tailor the message to specfic communities -timeliness: short time needed to produce newspaper ad and the regularity of the daily publication -self paced: can transmit detailed info because the medium is self paced disadvantages: -limited segmentation: difficulty to target ta specific audience; soe advertisers are reluctant to use them because newspapers are not demographically selective (harder to tailor messages in NY Times) -creative constraints: photographic reproduction is typically poor (some now using color) and no moving pictures or sound clutter: advertising does not stand out in the clutter of the ads
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Television- advantages and disadvantages
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-advantages:
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magazine- advantages and disadvantages
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Advantages: can get very specific with target audiences disadvantages: very long lead time
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outdoor advertising
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billboards, airplane ads things
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transit
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bus, subway, taxi ads
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Narrowcasting
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transmit a television program, especially by cable, or otherwise disseminate information, to a comparatively small audience defined by a specific or geographical location
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Direct response advertising
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done mostly by TV but also by radio – DR advertising TV ads generated over 2 billion dollars in sales TV ads can be expensive based on time, and show viewing. more viewed shows cost more money to place an Ad with them
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Direct marketing
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a system where orgs communicate directly with target audiences and ask them questions where they could get a direct response via phone, mail or personal visit
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direct marketing- Advantages and disadvantages
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Advantages: – Reach: advertiser reaches a large number of people -segmentation capabilities: list can be purchased that allow segmentation on basis of geographic area, occupation, demographics, job title -Frequency: advertising is usually expensive, so the marketer can afford to purchase repeat times -flexibility: direct marketing can take on a variety of forms -timing: direct mail can be put together very quickly and distributed to the target -personalization: no other medium can personalize the message as well as direct -measures of effectiveness: no other medium can measure the effectiveness of its advertising efforts as well as direct response… feedback is often immediate Disadvantages: – invasion of privacy: greatest concern about direct marketing expressed by consumer
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Factors that have led to growth
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1. the use of consumer credit card -able to purchase low and high ticket items 2. direct marketing syndicates -companies specializing in list development, statement inserts, catalogs 3. Technological advances – computers have made it easier for consumers to shop, which makes marketers more successful in targeting their audience 4.American society and the market – country of money
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database
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developed to segment and target potential customers
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infomercials
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-highly effective -3-60 minutes -consumers like seeing items being used -critics ask that infomercials be marketed as commercials so they dont get confused with regular programming
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telemarketing
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telephone sales -call a lot of people and only a few will buy something and take that profit -6% of all telemarketing results in a complete transaction
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demographic data
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data that is statistically SES in nature as population, race, income, education, and employment, which represent specific geographic locations and are often associated with time
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psychographic data
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forms the personality of the consumer, their likes, their dislikes, interests, and lifestyles, and can be a valued in the field of marketing
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behavioral data
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information produced as a result of actions, typically commercial behavior using range of devices connected to the internet such as a PC, tablet, or smartphone -behavioral data tracks the sites visited, apps downloaded, or the games played
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message discrepancy
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discrepancy between the position advocated in a message and peoples current beliefs HIGHLY discrepant message: likely to invoke counterarguments and have limited influence – if counterarguments could be blocked when exposed to highly discrepant messages, such messages might be persuasive implication is that messages are MODERATELY DISCREPANT may have the maximum persuasion Example: Die hard battery can it restart 20 batteries (yes), but peeps think no. people think it could start up 5 batteries, so they sell it as restarting 7 ( moderately discrepant
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Advertising closing dates
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-think about the different types of mediums you’re working with -the time frame it takes to get your ad to the certain media and how long it takes o get it into circulations -longest: magazines -shortest: radio
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Swoosh- Inside nike
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Nelson Ferris: 3rd employee hired by Nike- also hired Appiah through call connection Michael Jordan and spike lee: marketing campaign, spike lee “hype man” -third world country- production in factories, sweatshops etc
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marketing PR
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marketing products vs dealing with crisis
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product or service sampling
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-most effective in getting consumers to purchase your product -effective for high involvement purchases
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Price off Techniques
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-refunds/rebates -bonus packs -direct price-offs -warranties -premiums -coupons
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price offs
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-the second most effective way to enhance consumer trial -price offs as trial promotions can be used in 4 ways -refunds, bonus packs, direct price offs, warranties
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refunds/rebates
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-partial-money-back offers -technique used for larger priced items (TVs, cell phones) -low priced items coupon is more appropriate
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Bonus packs
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offer more product in either a larger container or multiple units -require more shelf space, not as easily accepted -limited application trial technique
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Direct price offs
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-reductions in normal price of the brand -only good for attracting new users for a familiar brand -cannot be used to introduce a new brand -high price in the absence of other info conveys quality
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warranties
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contract offered by manufacturer to a customer to provide restitution (moneyback, replacement) should the product be defective or malfunction
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premiums
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articles of merchandise offered free or at a price less than their retailed value as an incentive to buy one or more of the brand free premiums: giveaway items (free samples, cups, sunglasses etc) slef liquidating: w proof of purchase, get free stuff -less than 10% of households sent in for free or self liquidating
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coupons
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vouchers that entitle the buyer to a price reduction on the couponed item
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Repeat purchase promotions
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refer to these promotions that are intended or expected to increase incidence of repeat purchase by those who have already tried the product most widely used repeat promos 1. packaging 2. next purchase coupons 3. mulitunit coupons, refunds or rebates 4. multi-purchase contests and instant win sweepstakes 5. multi purchase premiums
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Corporative Advertising
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types: image, advocacy, cause related (companies link w charities or NPO) Advantages -excellent vehicle for positioning in the firm, firms (like products) need to establish image /position in marketplace -corporate image advertising takes advantage of the benefits derived from PR -corp image advertising reaches selected target market, not general public – CIA is often targeted to investors and managers of other firms rather than the general public Disadvantages -no strong evidence to support belief that corp. adv works -some critics contend that companies w large ad dollars purchase too much ad space and time and that advocacy ads may be misleading

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