# Springboard Mathematics Course 2 Terms – Flashcards

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absolute value
the distance of a number from zero on a number line; distance or this is always positive; for example the answer for 6 and -6 are both 6
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angles that have a common side, but no common interior
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algebraic expression
a mathematical phrase that contains one or more numbers, one or more variables, and one or more arithmetic operations; for example, 4a+7
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algebraic statement
an equation or inequality that contains variables, such as (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
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angle
the union of two rays with a common endpoint
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ascend
to move upward
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assets
items that one owns
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bar chart/graph
a way of displaying categorical data (for example, colors, types, qualities); each bar represents a different category; the vertical scale for the bar heights is labeled with the count or percent for each category
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budget
an estimate of expected income and expenses, with each type of income and expense identified by amount
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census
a study that gains information about every number of a population
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center
in a circle, a given point from which the set of points in the same plane are an equal distance
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circle
the set of points in a plane that are an equal distance from a given point, called the center
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circumference
the distance around a circle
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coefficient
a number by which a variable is multiplied; for example in the term 6x, this is 6
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common denominator
a number into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder
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complement of an event
includes all possible outcomes of a probability experiment that are not outcomes of the event
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complementary angles
two angles whose measures have a sum of ninety degrees
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complex solid
in three-dimensional geometry, the result of putting two or more solids together
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composite figure
a figure made up of two or more figures
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compound interest
interest calculated on the total principle plus the interest earned or owed during the previous time period
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congruent
when two or more figures are the same shape and size, they are this
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conjecture
an unproved statement that seems to be true
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constant
a term in an expression that does not change in value because it does not contain a variable; for example, this in the expression 3n + 6 is 6
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constant of proportionality
the ratio of output values to input values in a relationship which is directly proportional
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constant rate of change
if the rate of change remains the same in a problem situation, it is defined as this
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conversion factor
a ratio relating a number of units to a unit measure; for example, the ratio 12 to 1 is this relating inches to feet, and 1 to 12 is this relating feet to inches
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corresponding parts
the sides and angles of similar figures that are in the same relative positions in the figures
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coupon
a document offering a reduction in price on a specific item, such as a box of cereal
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critique
to analyze and discuss the details of something
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cross section
the intersection of a solid figure and a plane
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decompose the figure
in geometry, when you divide a composite figure into smaller figures, this phrase is sometimes used
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descend
to move downward
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diameter
any line segment through the center of a circle with endpoints on the circle
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discount
a reduction in price
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equally likely outcome
an outcome of a probability experiment in which every different outcome has the same chance of occurring
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equation
a statement showing that two numbers or expressions are equal, such as 4 + 3 = 7 or x + 5 = 9
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equivalent expression
two or more expressions that may look different, but represent the same quantity or have equal values when evaluated; for example, the expression 2x + 4x and the expression 6x are this
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estimated probability
is calculated by observing the outcome of a probability experiment many times; sometimes called empirical probabilities
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event
any outcome or group of outcomes from a probability experiment
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factor (noun)
any of the numbers or symbols that when multiplied together form a product
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factor (verb)
the process of finding the factors that form a product
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fixed expense
an expense that does not change over a period of time
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included angle
an angle formed by two sides of a triangle
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income tax
a percent of earnings paid to federal, state, or local governments as a tax
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interest
the percentage of a loan amount charged by the lender; rates are stated as a percentage
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lateral area
the sum of the areas of the lateral faces of a solid
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lateral face
a face of a solid that is not one of the bases
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liabilities
amounts owed; debts
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markup
an amount added to the original cost of an item to find the selling price
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media
the various ways by which news and information are communicated to the public; for example, through television, radio, and newspapers
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monetary incentive
a special offer that reduces the total cost of one or more items, such as "buy one, get one free"
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net
a two-dimensional drawing used to represent or form a three-dimensional object or solid
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net worth
the difference between what is owned and what is owed
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numerical expression
an expression that contains numbers and operations; for example, 12 + 0 and (10 x 5) x 3 are expressions that contain numbers and operations
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numerical statement
an equation that sets two expressions equal; for example 20 x 4 = 4 x 20
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order of operations
a set of rules for evaluating expressions with more than one operation; the order is: do calculations inside parentheses, evaluate expressions with exponents, multiply or divide from left to right, add or subtract from left to right
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orientation
the way in which a figure is positioned
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palindrome
a word, phrase, or sequence that reads the same backward or forward; for example, the words tot and racecar are these
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percent
a ratio that compares a number to 100 and uses the % symbol
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percent equation
an equation showing the relationship between the whole and a part; this equation is written as: whole x percent = part
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percent error
the amount of error between the assumed value and the actual value
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percent increase/decrease
the percent by which an original amount is increased or decreased; this is determined by dividing the change by the original amount
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plane
a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions; a parallelogram is used to model this in two dimensions
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population
a set of numbers for which data are to be collected and analyzed with the purpose of drawing some conclusions about some feature of this
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population mean
the average of the data values for the whole population; if the sample is selected in the reasonable way, the sample mean can be used as an estimate of this
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predict
to make a reasonable guess about something that will happen
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prism
a solid with parallel congruent bases that are both polygons; the sides (faces) of this are all parallelograms or rectangles; these are named according to the shape of its bases
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probability
the measurement of the likelihood that an event will occur
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probability experiment
the process of observing an outcome when there is chance involved, which means that the outcome is not known prior to doing the experiment
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property
in mathematics, a property is a rule or statement that is always true
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property tax
a tax paid on real estate which is based on the value of the property, including land
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proportion
an equation stating that two ratios are equal
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pyramid
a three-dimensional figure whose base is a polygon and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex
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a line segment with one endpoint at the center of a circle and the other endpoint on the circle
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random digits
digits (0, 1, 2,...8, 9) arranged in a random order
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random sample
a sample that is formed by selecting individuals from the population at random
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rate
a comparison of two different units, such as distance and time, or two different things measured with the same unit
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rate of change
the ratio of output values to corresponding input values
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ratio
a comparison of two quantities; ratios can be written as fractions (indicating a quotient), or using the word "to," or using a colon (:)
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rational number
any number that can be written as the ratio of two integers where the divisor is not zero; for example, 8, 1.5, 2/5, y - 3
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rebate
a sales promotion used as an incentive to get buyers to purchase a specific product
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regular polygon
a polygon with all sides congruent and all angles congruent
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regular pyramid
a pyramid with a base that is a regular polygon
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relative size
the relationship between two items showing how the size of one item is larger or smaller than the other item
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repeating decimal
a decimal that has one or more digits following the decimal point that repeat endlessly
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right prism
a prism on which the bases are directly above each other, making the lateral faces perpendicular to the bases
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sales tax
a percentage of the cost of a purchase paid as a tax
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sample
a small representative group chosen from a population; a good one of these can be used to make predictions about the larger population
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sample mean
the average of the data values for a sample
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sample space
the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment
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sample statistic
a numerical value that is calculated using data from a sample
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sampling
choosing a portion of the population to study which resembles the entire population
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sampling variability
the variability in the values of a sample statistic that occurs when random samples are selected from a population because different samples include different individuals
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scale drawing
a drawing that represents an object as an enlargement or reduction of the size of an actual object; the scale factor defines the amount of enlargement or reduction
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selected at random
choosing in a way that gives each member of the group the same chance of being chosen
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semicircle
an arc whose measure is half of a circle; the area of this is half of the area of a circle with the same radius
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similar figures
figures in which the lengths of the corresponding sides are in proportion and the corresponding angles are congruent
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simulation
an artificial process for generating an outcome instead of using a probability experiment
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slant height of the pyramid
the height of a triangular face of a pyramid
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subset
a set whose elements are all in another set; every set is this of itself
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supplementary angles
two angles whose measures have a sum of 180 degrees
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surface area
the sum of the areas of the faces of a solid figure
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take-home pay
the amount of money an employee receives in a paycheck after amounts are withheld for taxes, health insurance, or contributions to retirement savings
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terminating decimal
a decimal that has a finite or limited number of digits following the decimal point
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theoretical probability
the ratio of the number of outcomes in which the event can occur to the total number of outcomes in the probability experiment
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tip
an optional payment-in addition to the cost of the bill-to someone who provides good service
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tree diagram
a graphic organizer for listing the possible outcomes of an experiment
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unit rate
a rate in which one of the quantities represented has a value of one; for example, a rate of 25 miles per gallon is a unit rate that can be written as 25 miles/1 gallon
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unique
"only" or "single" in geometry, a triangle that can be drawn in only one way
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variable
a letter or symbol used to represent a number in expressions or equations
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variable expense
a expense that changes-or varies-over time
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vertex