Spmt 217 exam 3

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Banning of corporate ownership
The NFL has the most strict ownership rules, being the only to ban corporate ownership since 1970 with the exception of the 49ers who is owned by Edward J. DeBartolo
What is included in league revenues
National Television and radio contracts, League-wide licensing, and league-wide sponsorship programs.
Collective bargaining agreement
agreements reached between players and league owners, deciding how the league will operate such as: division of league revenue, team salary caps, free agency requirements, restrictions on player mobility, provisions regarding the drafting of players, disciplinary rules, and other general regulations of the league
Sports movement in the global market
All major leagues are drafting players from different countries, they have also began to play regular season games overseas.
Salary caps
Salary caps are intended to create parity among teams by capping how much a team can spend on its players’ salaries. Salary caps are adjusted annually for changes in revenue
NFL public ownership
The NFL also bans public ownership in 1970, with the exception of the Green Bay Packers
The History and role of the Commissioner
Until 1921 a three-member board, the National commission, governed baseball. Baseball owners appointed Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis the first professional sport league commissioner in November 1920
League think
Pioneered and most effectively implemented by the NFL, this term represents the notion that teams must recognize the importance of their competition and share revenues to ensure that their competitors remain strong.
The current rate for athletic franchises
North America’s first professional league
North America was the first professional league was the National League for baseball founded in 1876 while the American League was founded in 1901
The first sports agents and their roles in history
C.C “Cash and Carry” Pyle is often cited as the first sport agent
o Agents have existed in individual sports such as golf and tennis for longer times then other sports
o Until 1970’s, it was extremely rare for a pro team sport athlete to have an agent
• Teams generally refused to deal with agents
• No free agency until 1976, so little leverage to negotiate
First associate to help provide rights for players
The reserve system
a rule that limited a free and open market for players, players placed on reserve list could not be traded. Reserve clause allowed owner to renew contracts season after season
Three models for a sport agency business
Professional Golf Association restrictions
The Professional Golf Association (PGA) restricts individual golfers from entering into endorsement unless they are:
A) related to golf only
B) with companies that sponsor the PGA tour
C) in good taste
D) do not conflict with the LPGA
Five Key problems of the sport agency profession
SFX sports
Could provide athletes with a one stop shop for marketing and negotiations
Requirements of being a sport agent
How arenas and stadiums help maximize revenue
Bonds, Taxes, and corporate investments
event Director
facility career opportunity; acts as the point person for the facility during each show; must be able to think and react quickly to any problems arising during the event and must be able to deal calmly with show promoters, angry customers, lost children, and other situations
Booking director
A person responsible for scheduling events for a facility.
Public relations director
Publicity Manager
Marketing director
is responsible for generating new business, organizing special events , and conducting market research
Monitoring financial risks
Detecting the issue – which variances are indication of problems, benchmarks or parameters for variance
Effects of September 11, 2001
Brainstorming tours
International Management group
the management of business operations conducted in more than one country.
Effects of televising sports
In house agencies
made up of the company’s own advertising staff may provide full services or a limited range of services.
zero base budgeting
We start with 0 and add what we want to add to the budget this year. Management must justify ALL additions to the budget. The intent is to avoid the organizational fat that eventually accumulates when managers adopt the belief that the current period’s budget should be the same as the last periods
integrated marketing
the coordination of marketing messages through every promotional vehicle to communicate a unified impression about a product
How to reduce risk
Professional skills, formatting, and expectations: resumes, interviews, salary

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