SPH-H 160 First Aid Exam 1

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Accident
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that occurrence in a sequence of events which produces unintentional injury, death, or property damage. Accident refers to the event and not the result of the event. NO SUCH THINGS AS ACCIDENTS
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Unusual Sights
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o Blood o Broken Items o Smoke or Fire o Medicine bottles o People milling around
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Appearances or Behaviors
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o Responds – Conscious vs. Unconscious o Changes in consciousness o A victim clutching their chest or throat o Unexplained confusion or drowsiness o A victim having trouble breathing
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Unusual Odors
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o Unusual breath odor (diabetic emergency) o Gasoline o Smoke o Natural Gas o Any unrecognizable odor (mold
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Unusual Noise
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o Screaming o Explosions o Changes in sound (machinery) o Items falling o Glass breaking o Tires screeching o Metal crashing
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Good Sam Law
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o Use common sense o Do not exceed scope of training in emergency situations o Do your best to help o Amended 1996 o AED
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Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
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A network of community resources & medical personnel providing emergency car.
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Legal Considerations
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o Duty to Act – Contract vs. Good Sam o Standard of Car – minimum responsibilities o Communicate o Prevent Injuries o Recognize victim o Provide Emergency Care o Negligence – carelessness o Refusal of Care – have a witness o DNR – paper or ID bracelet o Battery – unlawful, harmful, or offensive touching o Abandonment o Confidentiality o Record Keeping o Consent (Your name, “I’m trained, can I help?”, & Explain what you will do (if you have time))
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Preventing Disease Transmission (PDT)
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Diseases begin with pathogen (germ) in the body
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Bacteria
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can live independently, in or outside of body *Antibiotics fight bacteria
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Viruses
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depend on other organisms to live and reproduce *Ex. common cold
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4 ways diseases are spread
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1. Direct contact (cheerleading) 2. Indirect contact (not washing hands after bathroom, germs touch door handle) 3. Droplet or Airborne 4. Vector-borne (mosquito)
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All Must occur for disease to be transmitted:
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o Pathogen is present o There is enough pathogen to cause disease o A person is susceptible to the pathogen (most susceptible = children & elderly) o The pathogen passes through correct entry site
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DCAPBTLS
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Deformities Contusions Abrasions Punctures/Penetrations Burns Tenderness Lacerations Swelling
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Patient Assessment
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1. Check the scene 2. BSI 3. Check the victim 4. Shout for help 5. Call 911 6. Care (CAB) 7. Look for other injuries 8. Check DCAPBTLS 9. Ask SAMPLE 10. Ask OPQRST
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Pulse/Heart Rate
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o adult – 60-100 o child – 70-150 o infant – 100-160
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Respiration
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o adult – 12-20 o child – 15-30 o infant – 25-50
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Skin
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o temperature o complexion o moisture
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Breathing Quality
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o normal o shallow o labored o noisy
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Respiratory Distress
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difficulty breathing
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Respiratory Arrest
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stoppage of breathing
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Asthma
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narrowing of air passages triggered by allergic reactions, emotional stress, or physical activity care includes: relaxation, breathing in warm moist air (hot shower), medications such as inhalant or epinephrine
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Hypoxia
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not enough oxygen to the cells of the body signs and symptons: • increased breathing and heart rate • cyanosis – turning blue • changes in consciousness
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Emphysema
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the lungs lose their ability to exchange Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen efficiently resulting in shortness of breath
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First aid kits
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home, car, work store in convenient area (Easily Accessible) supplies should be checked and restocked regularly (check medication expiration date) clearly marked portable & waterproof important items o BSI – breathing barrier, gloves o Dressings – gauze, non-stick (telfa) o Bandages – roller gauze, triangle o Scissors o Flashlight o Ace wraps
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OTC
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o Acetaminophen (Tylenol) o Aspirin o Ibuprofen (Advil) o Naproxen (Aleve) o Epinepherin

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