Speech Mid Term 2016

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Invention
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– first of the five canons of rhetoric – devised by Aristotle and Cicero – refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case – pretty much the same thing as audience analysis in current day
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source
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or sender is the person who creates the message
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feedback
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the audience’s response to a message, can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally
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Audience Analysis
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the process of gathering and analyzing demographic and psychological informamation about audience members
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Plagerism
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using another person’s words without acknowledging the source!!!
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The Three Main Types of Speeches
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– events – informative – persuasive
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What is in an outline
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1. Specific Purpose (don’t have to say this) 2. Introduction: (doesn’t have to be in this order but must include) a. thesis (main points!) b. relevance c. expertise 3. Body of speak with all main points -3-5 main points – explain main points in the exact order you said in your thesis. 4. Conclusion a. relevance b. review main points again –spp
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Three ways you can give a speech
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Chronologically Topically Spatially
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Lincoln said this about a speech
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1. tell them what your gonna tell them 2. tell them 3. tell them what you told them
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Chronological
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– a patter of speech arrangement – organize all points in natural sequential order -Example — used when describing events in time or when the topic develops in line with a set of pattern or tasks
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Values
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Most enduring judgments about what is good and bad in life/important to us as shaped by our culture or o ur unique experiences within it
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Thesis/Preview
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theme, or central idea, of a speech that serves to connect all parts of the speech in a single line. The main points, supporting material and conclusion all relate to the thesis!!!!
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Parallelism
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– the arrangement of words, phrases or sentences in a similar grammatical and stylistic form – parallel structure can help the speaker emphasize important ideas in the speech
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Outline
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Def: organization of speech in words Two Types of Outlines 1. complete sentences 2. key words
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Connotation
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the individual associations that different people bring to bear on a word. refers to the feelings and emotions that accompany a word. While words have literal meanings, denotation, they also have feelings and emotions that are associated with them. It is important to understand the connotation of words that we use. for example: like the gun could me fun target shooting for one person while another person it could invoke fear.
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Informative
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A type of speech providing new information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic. The general purpose of the informative speech i s to increase the audience’s understanding and awareness of a topic.
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Denotion
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a dictionary accepted definition
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Analogy
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comparing something unfamiliar to your audience that is familiar
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Conclusion
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The part of the speech in which the speaker reiterates the speech theme, summarizes main points, and leaves the audience with something about which to think about.
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Persuasive
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Speech whose goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values or acts of others.
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Spatial
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a pattern of organizing main points in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to each other; used when the purpose of a speech is to describe or explain the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object. geographical or physical speech example: spatial: talk about the architecture and physical layout of the white house or non spatial: talk about the history of the white house
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Attitudes
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our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects or events
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Mnemonic device
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a way to remember something example: pemdas – please excuse my dear aunt sally which means parenthesis, exponents, multiply, divide, add, subtract – the order of operations in algebra
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Signpost
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a signal to let your audience know you are moving on conjunctions or phrases (such as “next”, “in the first case”, “on the other hand”, “finally”…etc) that indicate transitions between supporting points
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Introduction
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the first part of the speech, in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relevance to the audience and previews the topic and the main points
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Topical
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pattern of speech arrangement; a pattern of organizing main points as subtopics or categories of the speech topic
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Metaphor
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a figure of speech used to make implicit comparisons without the use of “like” or “as” (for example “love is a rose” “Her eyes were fireflies”)
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Beliefs
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the ways in which people perceive reality or determine the very existence or validity of something.
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Credibility
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how much the audience trusts the speaker
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Anecdotes
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a brief story of an interesting, humorous, or real-life incident that links back to the speaker’s theme
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decoding
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the process of interpreting a message decoding is “selective” ; audience members decode the speech based on their own life experiences and attitudes
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encoding
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the process of converting thoughts to words
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noise
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any interference with the message
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Aristotal
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one of the first public speakers, “classical rhetorician” he began the process of preparing a speech into five parts: 1. Invention – refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case 2. arrangement – organizing the speech in ways best suited to the topic and audience 3. style – the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas 4. memory – the practrice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered 5. delivery – the vocal and nonvocal behavior when you use speaking also called the *canons of rhetoric*
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Five Points for a GOOD SLIDE
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– use sans serif typeface, bold like, linear and designed without tiny strokes or flourishes at the top and bottom of each other -font must be 36 point and above -no more than 20 words per slide -clear, bright background —-RARELY TO NEVER USE DAR K BACKGROUND -must have professional imagery / non offensive / clear (clip art, photos etc) -no plagiarism!!!
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Seven Rules of Slide Design
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1. Templates – chose wisely 2. Text – know the limits 3. Font – sans serif, 36 point and up 4. Images – professional choices!!! 5. Color – pick high-contrast combinations 6. Animation – don’t get too creative 7. Capitalization – stop capitalizing everthhing
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TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS – ALL FOUR QUIZZES
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A conclusion signals the end of the speech and provides closure
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True
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A speaker can effectively signal closure by manner of delivery
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True Non verbal and verbal
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An analogy compares unfamiliar concept to a more familiar one in order to increase audience understanding of the unfamiliar concept
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True
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Cultural sensitivity is purely unconscious way of judging cultural beliefs, norms or traditions that are different from your own
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False b/c it is conscious!
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If a body of the speech is well developed, it is sometimes an effective technique to deliver the intro and conclusion spontaneously, without preparation
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False!!! Always be prepared!!
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Repetition is an effective strategy for using language in a speech.
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True
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In the conclusion, the speaker should not reiterate the topic and speech purpose.
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False
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Since few contemporary audiences are culturally diverse, a speaker need not be aware of or sensitive to cultural variations in language.
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False
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Supporting material should not be used to open a speech.
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False
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The choices a speaker makes about the introduction of a speech do not affect the outcome of the entire speech.
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False
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The first challenge a speaker faces in developing an introduction is to win the audience’s attention.
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True
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The connotative meaning is the literal, or dictionary, definition of a word.
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False! It’s denotative
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The speech introduction should capture the audience’s attention, but it does not need to delve into the topic and purpose of the speech.
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False -must be an attention getter and should be within the thesis, relevance, expertise
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To build credibility in the introduction, a speaker should make a simple statement of his or her qualifications for speaking on the topic.
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True
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When using humor in an introduction, the speaker should keep in mind that the humor should relate to the speech topic and occasion.
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True
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A chronological pattern of arrangement follows the natural sequential order of the main points.
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True
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A speech describing a series of events in the development of a new idea calls for a spatial pattern of arrangement.
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False
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Chronological arrangements give the speaker the greatest freedom to structure main points according to the audience’s interests and the circumstances of the occasion.
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False
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In an outline, indentation indicates different levels of points.
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True
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Outlines are critical to organizing a speech
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True
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Phrase outlines or key-word outlines are recommended over sentence outlines in the delivery of most speeches.
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True
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Research shows that audiences can comfortably take in between eight and ten main points.
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False
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The causal pattern relates a cause to its effects.
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True
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The function of the problem-solution pattern is to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution.
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True
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The spatial pattern describes the physical arrangement of a place, scene, or object.
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True
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The speech body should follow logically from the introduction, and the conclusion should follow logically from the body.
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True
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The structure of a speech is composed of three main parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
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True
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When a speech is very disorganized, audiences react negatively.
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True
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Writing an outline in full sentences builds speaker confidence
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True
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A regularly published magazine or journal is called a periodical.
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True
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All Internet search engines use the same criteria to determine search relevance.
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False
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An audience that holds negative attitudes toward the speaker will tend to disregard even the most important or interesting message.
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True
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Audience analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about listeners.
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True
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Beliefs reflect a predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects, or events in evaluative ways.
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False Beliefs are the way in which people perceive realty or determine the very existence or validity of something this definition would be “attitudes”
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Current events are generally considered boring choices for speech topics.
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False
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Encyclopedias, almanacs, and atlases are examples of reference works.
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True
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In evaluating facts and statistics as supporting material for a speech, it is important to determine whether the source is credible.
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True
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Lay testimony is testimony by nonexperts
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True
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Most people require some type of evidence before they will accept a speaker’s position or claims.
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True
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The purpose of propaganda is to instill a particular attitude.
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True Positive Propaganda: the ugly truth – anti smoking anti littering safe sex —has had the biggest affect in the world!
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People’s most enduring judgments about what is good and bad in life are called attitudes.
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False this definition is values!
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The specific speech purpose focuses more closely on the speech’s goal than does the general speech purpose.
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True
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The three general speech purposes are to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.
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False
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To assess the credibility of a publication, the speaker should check out the publisher and determine whether the source is reputable.
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True
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A specific speaker focuses on issues as well as on personalities in order to give the audience the opportunity to make logical choices
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True find blend between these two
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A speaker should always use the thesis statement a guidepost to develop and support the speech’s main points
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True
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A speech does not need a clearly defined goal to be effective
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False!
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Active listening is useful and purposeful
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True
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Another term for noise is interference
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True
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Delivery refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
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True Delivery is also non verbal part of public speaking –one of the five canons of rhetoric
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Manipulating information to achieve a particular purpose is not always unethical
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False
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Performance anxiety in speechmaking is usually most pronounced as the speech builds to its climax
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False
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Selective perception is a process in which listeners pay attention to certain messages and ignore others
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True
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Successful speeches appeal to the listeners’ values
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True
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The belief that the ways of one’s own culture are superior to those of other cultures is called ethnocentrism
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True
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Supporting material for a speech lends credibility to the speaker’s message
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True
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The receiver decodes or interprets the message
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True
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There are three broad types of public speaking
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True informative, persuasive and events/special occasions
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Visualization is not an effective technique for building speaker confidence
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False

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