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Speech 101 – Exam One- Chapter 1 – 4 – Study Guide

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Why are public speaking classes valuable?
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1. reveals you as a competent, well educated person 2. prepares you for important communication situations 3. helps you become a better communication consumer 4. develops basic communication skills 5. helps you control communication anxiety 6. helps you succeed in college and career
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Why is freedom of speech important?
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We are enacting a citizenship role guaranteed to us by those who framed the Constitution
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______ occurs when audience members experience a sharing sense of purpose with a speaker?
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Identification
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What is a stereotype?
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generalized pictures of a race, gender, or group that supposedly represent its essential characteristics
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Audience expectations best characterize the ______ of public speaking transactions.
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psychological setting
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Which historical figure is credited with discussing the three genres of deliberative, forensic, and ceremonial speaking?
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Aristotle
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_______ refers to the messages listeners send back to a speaker while he or she is speaking.
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Feedback
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Who wrote the classic dialogue on communication ethics entitled Phaedrus?
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Plato
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When listening to a speech, Joe is distracted by the sound of students yelling in the hallway. Which of the following barriers to effective communication does this example refer to?
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Interference
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According to the NACE study, ________ skills are considered to be the most important attributes for securing professional level employment.
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Communication
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What does “responsible knowledge” include?
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An advanced stage of awareness concerning a topic, understanding its major features, issues, and latest developments, and local applications
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The first amendment of the constitution guarantees what two freedoms?
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Freedom of speech and press
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Which popular metaphor is widely criticized for creating a monolithic stereotype of American culture?
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“melting pot”
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______ refers to the tendency to presume that our culture is “right” and the standard against which other cultures should be judged.
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Ethnocentrism
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What is the effect of quoting out of context?
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Twisting the meaning of statements in order to support one’s own views
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Johnny has prepared and practiced an excellent presentation, but he’s so convinced that he will get nervous that he actually gets himself nervous before and during his presentation. This exemplifies what common cause of communication anxiety?
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negative thinking
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Why is some communication anxiety a good thing?
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Channeling and controlling nervous energy will help you
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The importance of the situation will likely affect communication anxiety in what way?
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The speakerʹs anxiety will increase.
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What approach to managing communication anxiety focuses on tensing and relaxing various muscle groups?
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Selective Relaxation
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Before making presentations, Trisha likes to focus exclusively on making her presentation successful. This illustrates what approach to managing communication anxiety?
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visualization
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Replacing the thought, “Everyone will laugh at my speech because I sound so dumb” with “I’ve done my researching I know what I’m talking about” is an example of _____________.
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Cognitive Reconstruction
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How can listeners help speakers cope with communication anxiety?
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give them your attention, look pleasant and encouraging
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What should you do when you (as you) walk to the podium?
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What are the basic skill that are crucial to putting together an effective first presentation?
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Focusing appropriate topics into clean messages, using supporting material
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What element of ethos can a speaker most enhance simply by smiling?
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goodwill
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Which part of a narrative speech design sets the scene for an unfolding story?
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prologue
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Which attributes ethos is enhanced by citing authoritative sources?
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competence
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What type if speech design is based upon a story?
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Narrative
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What is the first step in preparing a speech?
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pick a topic
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What characteristic does a speaker who demonstrates ethical, honest, and dependable behavior convey?
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integrity
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What kind of language use is especially important to developing effective narratives?
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colorful, concrete and active
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Marr’s self-introduction speech focuses on how her mother shaped her personality. What is the best speech design for Mary’s speech?
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cause-effect
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Which part of the speech should the speaker prepare first?
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purpose
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What planned strategies do speakers use to let their audiences know they are through with one point or part of their speech, and moving onto the next?
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transitions
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How should you practice your speech?
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Infant of a group of friends, in the room you will give the speech in, record yourself.
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What are the elements of ethos?
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goodwill, competence, integrity, dynamism
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When considering prospective topic areas, what are the questions speakers should as themselves?
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What do I hope to by addressing this subject?
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Ethos include audience perceptions of what?
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Competence, integrity, goodwill, dynamism
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Which activity occupies the greatest amount of time we spend communication in the workplace?
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Listening
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What form of listening is particularly important to protect us from the designs of dishonest speakers?
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Critical
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Speakers who talk too rapidly or too slowly may contribute to which barrier to effective listening?
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inattention
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If you are listening to a lecture about Cherokee native Americans and it reminds you of driving your Jeep Cherokee in the mud, you have succumbed to what barrier to barrier to effective listening?
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chance association of words
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Thinking about the date you have after class represents what form of listening barrier?
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Inattention
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Getting up and closing a window or door because you are having trouble hearing would be one way to handle what sort of problem?
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noise
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What kind of reaction does a trigger word invoke in listeners?
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a positive or negative responce
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Jeff believes the federal government needs to cut spending, yet he refuses to consider a proposal to cut spending because it is supporting by members of the “other party.” What barrier to effective listening does Jeff’s behavior reflect?
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Bias
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What is the first step in overcoming bias?
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to recognize you have them
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What is the characteristic of evidence that directly relates to the issues being discussed?
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relevant, representative , recent, reliable
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What critical standard of effective evidence use would be violated if a speaker used examples of juvenile crime in Europe to argue that American Kids are out of control?
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Representative
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What is a statement that contains personal judgments?
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opinions