SPCH COMM CH 4

question

Ben says, “Hawaii is the best vacation spot in the world.” Ethan, who has read reliable data about the subject, says, “Statistics show that more people vacation in Paris than in Hawaii.” The difference between their statements is that Ben’s is ____________, whereas Ethan’s is ____________.
answer

opinion-based; fact-based
question

Which of the following is true about how women and men use language?
answer

Both men and women talk frequently about work, movies, and television.
question

Using the term firefighter rather than fireman is an example of ____________ language.
answer

gender-neutral
question

Melania asks a woman who is actually just overweight when the baby is due. What language rule did Melania break?
answer

Pragmatic rules
question

A behavioral description describes behavior that is ____________.
answer

observable
question

Research indicates that the notion that men and women communicate in dramatically different ways is ____________.
answer

exaggerated
question

Fast or slow, small or large, smart or stupid, and short or long are examples of words of what type?
answer

Relative
question

People who speak using a combination of “powerful” and “powerless” language are typically more ____________ communicators.
answer

effective
question

____________ govern how words sound when pronounced.
answer

Phonological rules
question

When entering a public restroom, which set of language rules makes it possible for us to know whether to enter through the “Men’s” or “Women’s” door?
answer

Semantic rules
question

You overhear two women at the table next to you talking about the frustrations of working with an explosive boss. Which of the following is most likely to be part of their conversation, based on research about female speech patterns?
answer

“How do you feel when the boss starts yelling like that?”
question

____________ language contains words that sound as if they are describing something when they are really announcing the speaker’s attitude toward something.
answer

Emotive
question

A conclusion based on an interpretation of evidence is called a(n) ____________.
answer

inference
question

Using acronyms online such as ILYSM or OOMP demonstrates ____________.
answer

convergence
question

____________ words have more than one correct dictionary definition.
answer

Equivocal
question

Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning demonstrates visually that meanings are in ____________.
answer

minds
question

The CEO of a company tells her employees that “each department will be restructuring within the next six months.” A department head in the same company tells employees that the department will sustain layoffs within the next six months. How do the statements compare?
answer

The CEO intentionally uses a vague term for “layoffs,” while the department head is direct.
question

____________ govern the arrangement or sequence of language.
answer

Syntactic rules
question

Which of the following is an example of powerless speech?
answer

Hedges
question

Which of the following statements would researchers classify as being the most powerfully expressed?
answer

“I have a question.”
question

Communicators who want to set themselves apart from others adopt the strategy of ____________.
answer

divergence
question

Kiley tells Luke, “You don’t listen to me anymore.” What still needs to be answered to make the statement a behavioral description?
answer

In what circumstances does the behavior occur?
question

Language use can reflect a speaker’s willingness to take responsibility for his or her statements. Which of the following categories of statements reflects the highest amount of speaker responsibility?
answer

“I” statements
question

Which one of the following word types gains its meaning by comparison?
answer

Relative
question

What style of speech is used in this statement? “I’ve felt that way myself. My heart really goes out to you.”
answer

Affective
question

Linguistic relativism means that ____________.
answer

the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
question

Jude tells Micah about a problem he’s been having at work. Considering the differences in the way men and women often communicate, how is Micah most likely to respond?
answer

By expressing sympathy or empathy
question

When communicators adapt their speech to fit in with others they are adopting the strategy of ____________.
answer

convergence
question

____________ describes a version of the same language that contains substantially different words and meanings.
answer

Dialect
question

Dictionary definitions offer ____________ meanings, while implied interpretations that reflect the people, culture, emotions, and situations involved provide ____________ meanings.
answer

denotative, connotative
question

When your good friend tells you that you have a tendency to interrupt, you thank him for his constructive criticism. When a new coworker accuses you of monopolizing the conversation, you think silently to yourself, “Haters gonna hate.” The tendency to judge people we like more charitably than people we don’t know well is known as ____________.
answer

linguistic intergroup bias
question

The Inuit have dozens of words for what we typically call snow. This is an example of ____________.
answer

linguistic relativism
question

____________ are pleasant terms substituted for more direct but potentially less pleasant terms.
answer

Euphemisms
question

What factor influences language use much more than biology?
answer

Socialization
question

Melania asks a woman who is actually just overweight when the baby is due. What language rule did Melania break?
answer

Pragmatic rules
question

Swear words are governed by ____________.
answer

pragmatic rules
question

Communicators from cultures that value ____________ tend to use more ambiguous terms, hedges, and disclaimers.
answer

saving face
question

Graduate, lead, and produce are all words whose meaning may vary as a result of inconsistent ____________ rules.
answer

phonological
question

Terms such as sick and tight may be interpreted by members of your in-group as compliments, but other people are likely to see them as insults. This is because ____________ differ(s) from group to group.
answer

slang
question

The leader of a political party says a rival political party is “irresponsible because they are destroying the livelihood of millions of Southwestern ranchers with their policies.” An economist not affiliated with any political party cites data saying that the same ranchers “have sustained a 5 percent increase in taxes when purchasing feed.” Which statement best describes how the two statements compare?
answer

The first statement more likely uses emotive language, and the second is more likely a fact.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member