SOPH: AP World: Chapter 3 Review

Flashcard maker : Misty Porter
Akhetaten (Amarna)
New capital city: \”Horizon of Aten\”
in present day Amarna…
Established by Akhenaten
In untouched part of the desert.

Moved to bolster the new order/religion and escape power of the hostile priesthood.

Amenhotep IV
Tried to bring about social and religious changes to Egypt; believed in monotheism rather than polytheism.

ONLY WORSHIPPED ATEN, sun god
Changed his name to Akenhenaton \”he who is pleasing to Aten\”

After his death Egypt returned to polytheism

Amon- Re
Egyptian God of the Sun/ Universal god
Aryans
ancient Indo-European culture, migrated to Mehrgahr
Brahman
enlightenment (step….think Siddartha)
Brahmins
high class (priests)
citadels
a fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city
Dalit
untouchables, lowest of low class in Egypt caste system
Djoser
early Egyptian king
Dravidian
Another name for the
Harrapan Civilization
Giza
an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo
Great Pyramid of Khufu
Largest pyramid near town of Giza
Limestone blocks
HUGE

made under rule of khufu

Harappa
large ancient city of the Indus river valley civilization.
In present day pakistan
Harappan Civilizations
Neolithic Villages (difficult to examine remains….no translation of language).
High Water table
+Large Walled City – wars/fight/like Sumer
w/ Mohenjo Daro
Heliopolis
important Egyptian city.

Greek term \”sun\” \”city/town\” helio-polis

Hierakonpolis
\”Nekhen\” in ancient Egypt
Nomes that developed into one capital
City along the banks of Nile.
Form of a compact city, but it exercised many urban functions.
Introduced/implemented by irrigation systems (like Shaduf)
Had timbs/cemetaries
Social stratification
Narmer pallette discovered here
hieroglyphs
ancient Egyptian system of picture writing
Formal
Hyksos
invaders from the east that contributed to destroy/downfall of the Old Kingdom
Indra
Egypt: God of war/conflict
Indus River
river in present-day Pakistan that createsa fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley
Isis
Godess of magic and fertility (Mother godess)
Osiris’ wife and sister; Mother of Horus
Karma
(hinduism/buddhism)
How the effects of a persons actions determine his destiny/who he is in his next incarnation (recarnation)
Kshytiyas
second cast; Rulers/Warriors/Politicians/Provincial Governors
Lawbook of Manu
one of the Vedas, foundation for Hindu Religion
Ma’at
balance of order and justice

Maintained by the Egyptian God-Kings

Mastabas
Ancient Egyptian tombs.
Originally simple stone tombs built for the elite/upper class.
When official died and wanted to be buried next to another mastaba, architects began to build bigger mastabas off of the smaller one. These kept being built up until they were multistory tombs (stair tombs).
Mehrgarh
Area between today’s Pakistan/Iran

part of INdus River Valley

Memphis
city in the Indus River Valley
Menes/Narmer
Narmer: Egyptian king who some believe to be the person who first unified the upper and lower Nile into one single kingdom.

Some credit Menes as the one to do this…. Some believe Menes is the same person.

Mesopotamia
in fertile crescent: Region between Tigris/Euphrates Rivers (Modern iraq)

Sumer pioneered world’s first urban revolution

Sargon of Akkad united it

Middle Kingdom
Rise: King Metuhoptepte of Thebes reunited kingdom as one (began middle kingdom). Trade revived, fine arts/literature thrived, the states developed MORE ORGANIZATION and POWER than ever before.

Fall:

Mohenjo-Daro
\”mound of the dead\”

City in the Indus River Valley

Moksha
past Brahman, when one no longer has to be reincarnated because they are enlightened.
Mummification
process of embalming/drying corpses to preserve/prevent decay. Used as ritual to bring you to the afterlife.
Nagada I
Neolithic period where people
migrated out of the Sahara to Egypt (beginning of Nile civilization known to us)
Narmer
Egyptian king who some believe to be the person who first unified the upper and lower Nile into one single kingdom.

May also be Menes.

New Kingdom
Period during which Egypt reached the height of its power/glory
Nile River
Through Egypt (gift of the nile); Nile Valley
Predictable flood season every July, August, September (provides natural irrigation and carried silt)
nomes
Egyptian city-states/territories…
came together and formed capital region of hierkonpolis.

Administered districts in Egypt

Nubia
invaders from the south that helped
to destroy/downfall the old kingdom
Old King
2700 BC – 2200 BC
Upper and Lower Egypt separate kingdoms, developed basic features of its civilization

Built the pyramids; and eternal resting place for their god-kings

papyrus
paper made from papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing flat
Pharaoh
king-god of ancient egypt

God/political/military leader

Phoenicians
sea people that had advanced weapons

attacked Egypt alongside the Hyksos

Lived in egypt/interracial

Prakrit
shorthand/informal version of Sanskrit
raja
an Aryan King
Rosetta Stone
Important to modern anthropologists because it provided them with a key for understanding hieroglyphics. Understanding these hieroglyphics is essential for learning about the early Egypt civilization.
Samsara
The wheel/cycle of rebirth/reincarnation; the this-worldly realm in which rebirth occurs
Sanskrit
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India/the Vedas/Hinduism

Writing

Sati
Hindu goddess (wife of shiva)
Seth
God of disorder and Evil
Osiris’s brother
defeated by Horus
Shaduf
An irrigation sysyem that used buckets attached to a huge, turning wheel to dip into the river, bringing up water that then poured into man-made irrigation channels.
Shudras
4th on caste in egyptian social class system

Farmers (laborers)

Sphinx
Mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human

has large tunnels/caverns under, conspiracy theories 😀

The Book of the Dead
Egyptian religious text, describing the process of going/getting to the afterlife and mummification
Tigris-Euphrates Valley
valley with two rivers that defined Mesopotamis (around fertile crescent)
Upanishads
Hindu religious texts
Vaishyas
3rd caste in the egyptian social class system

Merchants/artisans/special laborers

Vedas
Hindu sacred texts.

Set of 4 collections of hymns/religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests

Why was Egypt called ‘the Gift of the Nile’?
called ‘the Gift of the Nile’ because outside of the Nile, there is only desert surrounding them.
Diffrences between Nile and Tigris/Euphrates River system?
Nile has predictable flood season (Jully, August, September)

Tigris/Euphrates unpredictable floods.

Why is the Rosetta Stone important?
Provided a key for understanding hieroglyphics. Understanding these Egyptian hieroglyphics is essential for learning about the early history of the Egyptian civilization.
Who were the different people living in the Nile Valley?
Semites, Phoenicians, Blacks, Europeans
Responsibilities of the Egyptian ‘God-Kings’
Responsible for….
+ maintaining ma’at (justice and order) throughout the kingdom
+ keeping the forces of nature in balance
+ inviting the annual flooding of the Nile River that made agriculture possible
Relationship of Seth, Isis, and Osiris
Seth attempted to kill and defeat Osiris.
Isis saved him and had son Horus.
Horus defeated Seth and gave osiris new life as king and principal of the underworld.
Egyptian view of the Afterlife Evolve over time
At first, Egyptians believed that the afterlife was reserved for kings alone.

Later idea expanded to include all royals/important officials.

Even later, people began to believe a large proportion of the population went to the afterlife.

Three important attributes of hierakonpolis
1. Irrigation systems (shaduf irrigation)
2. Tombs/cemetaries (evidence of social stratification) -one for common, one for royals
3. Narmer Pallette discovered here (slate tablet illustrating this unification )
The Rise and Fall of the Old Kingdom
Fall: Central authority weakened and provincial officials in each Nome asserted their power. Collected/kept taxes for themselves, private armies ruled locally. Death rates increased, famine prevalent, Nile didn’t reach optimal flood heights for agriculture, and weak rulers could not create irrigation works to compensate for shortfall.
Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom
King Mentuhotpe of Thebes reunited, created Middle Kingdom.
Trade revived, fine arts/literature flourished, States develop more ORGANIZATION & POWER than ever. Became empire.

Ended :
-Nubians drove out Egyptian conquerors
Invasion of the Hyksos

Amenhotep’s Changes in Society
+ Adopted new monotheistic religion: only worship Aten, the god of the sun.
+ Changed his name to Akenhenaten (\”he who serves Aten\”)
+ Appointed himself mediator betweeen people/god
+Erased old gods from incriptions. Remove words \”all gods\” in texts.
+ Move capital from thebes to empty part of desert (named it Akenhenaten).

These reforms were abandoned as soon as he died/lost power.

Osiris
God of Order and Virtue
New life: King, Principal god of the Underworld
Husband of Isis, Brother of Seth, Father of Horus

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