New capital city: \”Horizon of Aten\”
in present day Amarna…
Established by Akhenaten
In untouched part of the desert.
Moved to bolster the new order/religion and escape power of the hostile priesthood.
Tried to bring about social and religious changes to Egypt; believed in monotheism rather than polytheism.
ONLY WORSHIPPED ATEN, sun god
Changed his name to Akenhenaton \”he who is pleasing to Aten\”
After his death Egypt returned to polytheism
Egyptian God of the Sun/ Universal god
ancient Indo-European culture, migrated to Mehrgahr
enlightenment (step….think Siddartha)
high class (priests)
a fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city
untouchables, lowest of low class in Egypt caste system
early Egyptian king
Another name for the
an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo
Great Pyramid of Khufu
Largest pyramid near town of Giza
made under rule of khufu
large ancient city of the Indus river valley civilization.
In present day pakistan
Neolithic Villages (difficult to examine remains….no translation of language).
High Water table
+Large Walled City – wars/fight/like Sumer
w/ Mohenjo Daro
important Egyptian city.
Greek term \”sun\” \”city/town\” helio-polis
\”Nekhen\” in ancient Egypt
Nomes that developed into one capital
City along the banks of Nile.
Form of a compact city, but it exercised many urban functions.
Introduced/implemented by irrigation systems (like Shaduf)
Narmer pallette discovered here
ancient Egyptian system of picture writing
invaders from the east that contributed to destroy/downfall of the Old Kingdom
Egypt: God of war/conflict
river in present-day Pakistan that createsa fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley
Godess of magic and fertility (Mother godess)
Osiris’ wife and sister; Mother of Horus
How the effects of a persons actions determine his destiny/who he is in his next incarnation (recarnation)
second cast; Rulers/Warriors/Politicians/Provincial Governors
Lawbook of Manu
one of the Vedas, foundation for Hindu Religion
balance of order and justice
Maintained by the Egyptian God-Kings
Ancient Egyptian tombs.
Originally simple stone tombs built for the elite/upper class.
When official died and wanted to be buried next to another mastaba, architects began to build bigger mastabas off of the smaller one. These kept being built up until they were multistory tombs (stair tombs).
Area between today’s Pakistan/Iran
part of INdus River Valley
city in the Indus River Valley
Narmer: Egyptian king who some believe to be the person who first unified the upper and lower Nile into one single kingdom.
Some credit Menes as the one to do this…. Some believe Menes is the same person.
in fertile crescent: Region between Tigris/Euphrates Rivers (Modern iraq)
Sumer pioneered world’s first urban revolution
Sargon of Akkad united it
Rise: King Metuhoptepte of Thebes reunited kingdom as one (began middle kingdom). Trade revived, fine arts/literature thrived, the states developed MORE ORGANIZATION and POWER than ever before.
\”mound of the dead\”
City in the Indus River Valley
past Brahman, when one no longer has to be reincarnated because they are enlightened.
process of embalming/drying corpses to preserve/prevent decay. Used as ritual to bring you to the afterlife.
Neolithic period where people
migrated out of the Sahara to Egypt (beginning of Nile civilization known to us)
Egyptian king who some believe to be the person who first unified the upper and lower Nile into one single kingdom.
May also be Menes.
Period during which Egypt reached the height of its power/glory
Through Egypt (gift of the nile); Nile Valley
Predictable flood season every July, August, September (provides natural irrigation and carried silt)
came together and formed capital region of hierkonpolis.
Administered districts in Egypt
invaders from the south that helped
to destroy/downfall the old kingdom
2700 BC – 2200 BC
Upper and Lower Egypt separate kingdoms, developed basic features of its civilization
Built the pyramids; and eternal resting place for their god-kings
paper made from papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing flat
king-god of ancient egypt
sea people that had advanced weapons
attacked Egypt alongside the Hyksos
Lived in egypt/interracial
shorthand/informal version of Sanskrit
Important to modern anthropologists because it provided them with a key for understanding hieroglyphics. Understanding these hieroglyphics is essential for learning about the early Egypt civilization.
The wheel/cycle of rebirth/reincarnation; the this-worldly realm in which rebirth occurs
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India/the Vedas/Hinduism
Hindu goddess (wife of shiva)
God of disorder and Evil
defeated by Horus
An irrigation sysyem that used buckets attached to a huge, turning wheel to dip into the river, bringing up water that then poured into man-made irrigation channels.
4th on caste in egyptian social class system
Mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human
has large tunnels/caverns under, conspiracy theories 😀
The Book of the Dead
Egyptian religious text, describing the process of going/getting to the afterlife and mummification
valley with two rivers that defined Mesopotamis (around fertile crescent)
Hindu religious texts
3rd caste in the egyptian social class system
Hindu sacred texts.
Set of 4 collections of hymns/religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Why was Egypt called ‘the Gift of the Nile’?
called ‘the Gift of the Nile’ because outside of the Nile, there is only desert surrounding them.
Diffrences between Nile and Tigris/Euphrates River system?
Nile has predictable flood season (Jully, August, September)
Tigris/Euphrates unpredictable floods.
Why is the Rosetta Stone important?
Provided a key for understanding hieroglyphics. Understanding these Egyptian hieroglyphics is essential for learning about the early history of the Egyptian civilization.
Who were the different people living in the Nile Valley?
Semites, Phoenicians, Blacks, Europeans
Responsibilities of the Egyptian ‘God-Kings’
+ maintaining ma’at (justice and order) throughout the kingdom
+ keeping the forces of nature in balance
+ inviting the annual flooding of the Nile River that made agriculture possible
Relationship of Seth, Isis, and Osiris
Seth attempted to kill and defeat Osiris.
Isis saved him and had son Horus.
Horus defeated Seth and gave osiris new life as king and principal of the underworld.
Egyptian view of the Afterlife Evolve over time
At first, Egyptians believed that the afterlife was reserved for kings alone.
Later idea expanded to include all royals/important officials.
Even later, people began to believe a large proportion of the population went to the afterlife.
Three important attributes of hierakonpolis
1. Irrigation systems (shaduf irrigation)
2. Tombs/cemetaries (evidence of social stratification) -one for common, one for royals
3. Narmer Pallette discovered here (slate tablet illustrating this unification )
The Rise and Fall of the Old Kingdom
Fall: Central authority weakened and provincial officials in each Nome asserted their power. Collected/kept taxes for themselves, private armies ruled locally. Death rates increased, famine prevalent, Nile didn’t reach optimal flood heights for agriculture, and weak rulers could not create irrigation works to compensate for shortfall.
Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom
King Mentuhotpe of Thebes reunited, created Middle Kingdom.
Trade revived, fine arts/literature flourished, States develop more ORGANIZATION & POWER than ever. Became empire.
-Nubians drove out Egyptian conquerors
Invasion of the Hyksos
Amenhotep’s Changes in Society
+ Adopted new monotheistic religion: only worship Aten, the god of the sun.
+ Changed his name to Akenhenaten (\”he who serves Aten\”)
+ Appointed himself mediator betweeen people/god
+Erased old gods from incriptions. Remove words \”all gods\” in texts.
+ Move capital from thebes to empty part of desert (named it Akenhenaten).
These reforms were abandoned as soon as he died/lost power.
God of Order and Virtue
New life: King, Principal god of the Underworld
Husband of Isis, Brother of Seth, Father of Horus