SOL Review- Biochemistry

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biochemistry
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the chemistry of living things
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5 properties of water
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1. polar, 2. good solvent, 3. high boiling point, 4. adhesion, 5. cohesion
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polar
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containing both positive and negative charges
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solvent
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the ability to dissolve something
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heat capacity
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the ability to store heat. The high heat capacity of water allows large bodies of water like oceans to take in heat without significantly changing its own temperature
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adhesion
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attraction of molecules of different substances
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cohesion
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attraction of molecules of the same substance
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pH
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the measure of how acidic something is
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pH scale
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goes from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
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acids
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release hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
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bases
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release hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
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neutralization reaction
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when an acid and a base mix together to form water
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chemical reaction
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when chemical bonds are made or broken
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reactants
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the starting materials of a chemical reaction, listed on the left side of a chemical equation
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products
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the results of a chemical reaction, listed on the right side of a chemical equation
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polymer
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a long string of monomers which have been put together by dehydration reactions
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dehydration reaction
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when water is produced as a product of the combination of two chemicals
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hydrolysis
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when water is added and two chemicals break apart
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organic compounds
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molecules centered around carbon atoms
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4 main types of organic compounds
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carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
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carbohydrates
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molecules made of simple sugars containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Main source of energy for living things.
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glucose
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the most common simple sugar
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lipids
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made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. used for long term energy storage, cell membranes, and hormones.
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fats, oils and waxes
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common forms of lipids
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proteins
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molecules made of amino acids
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some uses of proteins
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structure, enzymes, muscles
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nucleic acids
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DNA and RNA used to store genetic information and transmit that information to ribosomes for translation
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enzymes
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catalysts made of protein
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catalyst
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anything that speeds up a chemical reaction
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active site
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the part of an enzyme that holds the molecules that will be used in the reaction
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denature
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making an enzyme no longer work because the structure changed due to heat or extreme pH

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