Sociology vocab

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Primary Sex Characteristics
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genitals, organs of reproduction
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Secondary Sex Characteristics
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body development, aside from genitals, that differentiates biologically mature females and males
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Intersexuality
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persons born with sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that do no fit the typical definition of male and female
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Transexual (Transgender)
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appearing or behaving in ways that challenge conventional cultural norms concerning how females and males should look and act
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Cissexual
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denoting or relating to a person whose self-identity conforms with the gender that corresponds to their biological sex
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Sexual Orientation
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persons romantic and emotional attraction to another person
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Economy
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the social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
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Primary Economic Sector
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part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
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Secondary Economic Sector
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part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
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Tertiary Economic Sector
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part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
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Capitalism
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economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
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Socialism
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economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
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Communism
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a hypothetical economic and political system in which all members of a society are socially equal
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Welfare Capitalism
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economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
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State Capitalism
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economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government
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Primary Labor Markets
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jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers
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Labor Unions
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organizations of workers that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies, including negotiations and strikes
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Secondary Labor Markets
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jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers
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Collective Bargaining
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negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees.
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Underground Economy
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economic activity involving income not reported to the government as required by law
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Monopoly
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domination of a market by a single producer
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Oligopoly
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domination of a market by a few producers
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Power
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ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
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Authority
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power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
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Traditional
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power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns
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Charismatic
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power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience
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Rational-Legal
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power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations
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Social Change
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transformation of culture and social institutions over time
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Four (4) Characteristics of Social Change
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1. change happens all the time 2. change is sometimes intentional but often it is unplanned 3. change is controversial 4. some changes matter more than others
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Mechanical Solidarity
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social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values. This type of social solidarity is typical of traditional, rural life.
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Organic Solidarity
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social bonds based on specialization and interdependence. This type of social solidarity is typical of modern, urban life.
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Gemeinschaft
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A type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition.
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Gesellchaft
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A type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest.
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Rationalization and Bureaucratization
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Fetishism of Commodities
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Urbanization
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The concentration of population into cities.
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Metropolis/Metropolitan Area
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A large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area.
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Megalopolis
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A vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.
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Suburbs/Suburbanization
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Urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city.
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Durkheim’s Understanding of the Division of Labor
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specialized economic activity. Every member of a traditional society performs more or less the same daily round of activities; modern societies function by having people perform highly specific jobs.
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Exurbs/Edge Cities
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Sprawl
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Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
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Gentrification
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A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
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Urban Ecology
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The study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.
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Globalization
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Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
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Global Cities
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what draws people to living in cities
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1. George Simmel’s Early 20th Century Ideas 2. Richard Florida’s Late 20th Century Ideas
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Collective Behavior
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Activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous.
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Primary Characteristics of Collective Behavior
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Diverse Variable Transitory
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Groups vs Collectivities
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Groups Collective – A large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms.
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Social Movements
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an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
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Stages in Social Movements
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1. Emergence 2. Coalescence 3. Bureaucratization 4. Decline (Including 5. Reasons for Decline)
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Emergence
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Defining the public issue
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Coalescence
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Entering the public arena
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Bureaucratization
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Becoming formally organized
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Decline
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Due to failure or, sometimes, success
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Social Change Movements
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1. Reformative Social Movements 2. Revolutionary Social Movements
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Reformative Social Movements
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Seeks limited change in the whole society. (Example: the environmental movement)
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Revolutionary Social Movements
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Seeks radical change in the whole society. (Example: the Communist party)
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Personal Transformation Movements
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1. Alternative Social Movements 2. Redemptive Social Movements
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Alternative Social Movements
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Seeks limited change in specific individuals. (Example: Promise Keepers)
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Redemptive Social Movements
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Seeks radical change in specific individuals. (Example: Alcoholics Anonymous)
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Theories of Social Movements
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1. Deprivation Theory 2. Mass Society Theory 3. Culture Theory 4. Resource Mobilization Theory 5. Structural-Strain Theory 6. Political Economy Theory 7. New Social Movements
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Deprivation Theory (7 theories)
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1. Deprivation Theory 2. Mass Society Theory 3. Culture Theory 4. Resource Mobilization Theory 5. Structural-Strain Theory 6. Political Economy Theory 7. New Social Movements
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Deprivation Theory (definition)
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Social movements arise among people who feel deprived of something, such as income, safe working conditions, or political rights.
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Mass Society Theory
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Social movements attract socially isolated people who join a movement in order to gain a sense of identity and purpose.
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Culture Theory
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Social movements depend not only on money and resources but also on cultural symbols that motivate people.
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Resource Mobilization Theory
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Success of a social movement is linked to available resources, including money, labor, and the mass media.
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Structural-Strain Theroy
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A social movement develops as the result of six factors. Clearly stated grievances encourage the formation of social movements; undirected anger, by contrast, promotes rioting.
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Political Economy Theory
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Social movements arise within capitalist societies that fail to meet the needs of a majority of people.
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New Social Movements
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Social movements in postindustrial societies are typically international in scope and focus on quality-of-life issues.
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Theories of Growth
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1. Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone 2. Hoyt’s Sector Model 3. Harris and Ullman’s Multicentered Model
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Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone
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Model where city centers are business districts bordered by a ring of factories, followed by residential rings with housing that becomes more expensive the farther it is from the noise and pollution of the city’s center.
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Hoyt’s Sector Model
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Model where distinctive districts sometimes form wedge-shaped sectors.
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Harris and Ullman’s Multicentered Model
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argued that cities do not grow a single nucleus but several separate nuclei
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Theoretical Perspectives on Collective Behavior
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1. Contagion Theory 2. Convergence Theory 3. Emergent Norm Theory
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Contagion Theory
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Views crowds as anonymous, suggestible, and swayed by rising emotions.
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Convergence Theory
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States that crowd behavior reflects the desires people bring to them.
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Emergent Norm Theory
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Suggests that crowds develop their own behavior as events unfold.
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Urban Social Problems
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1. Concentrated Poverty 2. Racial Residential Segregation 3. Spatial Mismatch
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Concentrated Poverty
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refers to areas in which very high proportions of the populations live in poverty
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Racial Residential Segregation
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Refers to the physical separation of the races in residential contexts.
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Spatial Mismatch
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the mismatch between where low-income households reside and where suitable job opportunities are available.
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Theories of Global Change and Inequality
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1. Modernization Theory 2. Dependency Theory 3. World Systems Theory
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Modernization Theory
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claims that in the past, the entire world was poor and that technological change, especially the Industrial Revolution, enhanced human productivity and raised living standards in many nations.
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Dependency Theory
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a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones

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