Sociology in Our Times Ch 7

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
deviance
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs
crime
behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions
juvenile delinquency
a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
retreatism
one of Robert Merton’s responses to the inability to succeed, involving rejection of both cultural goals and means
medicalization of deviance
the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
innovation
one of Robert Merton’s responses, involving the use of unconventional means to achieve culturally approved goals
corporate crime
the illegal actions a a corporation or people acting on its behalf
differential association theory (SIP – Sutherland)
Edwin Sutherland’s theory that a person’s tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact he/she has with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior
deterrence
the attempt to discourage criminality through punishment
victimless crimes
violations of the law in which there are no readily apparent victims
labeling theory (SIP – Becker)
the proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others
stigma
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity
rebellion
one of Robert Merton’s, involving rejection of both cultural goals and means, going one step further by forming counterculture and advocating alternatives to the existing order
ritualism
one of Robert Merton’s responses, involving accepting society’s means of attaining success but recognizing the goals are only minimally accessible
conformity
one of Robert Merton’s responses, involving the pursuit of conventional goals through approved means, successfully acquiring wealth and prestige
social control
attempts by society to regulate peopls’ thoughts and behavior
rehabilitation
a program for reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses
retribution
an act of moral vengeance by which society inflicts suffering on the offender comparable to that cause by the offense
deviant career
a way of life characterized by repeated norm violations
white-collar crime (or occupational crime)
illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs
property crime
crimes including burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, and arson
organized crime
a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit
violent crime
actions – murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault – involving force or the threat of force against others
moral entrepreneur
in most cases, the people who create the rules about what constitutes deviant and conventional behavior
differential reinforcement theory (SIP)
the proposition that both deviant and conventional behaviors are learned through the same social processes
rational choice theory (SIP)
the belief that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of non-conventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions
social bond theory (SIP- Hirschi)
the proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken
1. deviance clarifies the rules
2. deviance unites a group
3. deviance promotes social change
Durkheim’s theory on functionality of deviance (FP)
strain theory (FP- Merton)
the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals
illegitimate opportunity structures
circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels
social dynamite
from the conflict perspective, people who have been marginalized (rioters, labor organizers, gang members, and criminals)
social junk
from the conflict perspective, members of stigmatized groups (welfare recipients, homeless people, the disabled)
primary deviance (SIP-Lemert)
the initial act of rule-breaking
secondary deviance (SIP-Lemert)
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior
tertiary deviance (SIP-Lemert)
deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant
opportunity theory (FP-Cloward/Ohlin)
lower-class delinquents subscribe to middle-class values but cannot attain them, resulting in the formation of gangs to achieve status and goals through illegitimate means
liberal feminism (CP)
idea that female deviance arises from gender discrimination
radical feminism (CP)
idea that deviance arises mainly from patriarchy
socialist feminism (CP)
idea that female deviance is impacted by capitalism and patriarchy
“Knowledge as Power” (PP – Foucault)
power, knowledge, and control are intertwined. by acquiring more knowledge than others, one retains power over them
political crime
illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it.
terrorism
the calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective

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