Sociology chapter 5 (personality, socialization)

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personality
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the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristics of an individual
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heredity
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the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to their children
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instinct
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unchanging, biological, inherited behavior pattern
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sociobiology
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the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior
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aptitudes
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capacity to learn a particular skill of acquire a particular body of knowledge
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feral children
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children left in almost complete isolation; Genie, Anna, Isabella
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socialization
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the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs and behavior patterns of a society
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self
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your conscience awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other members of society
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John Locke
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believed each newly born human is a \”clean slate\” or \”tabula rasa\”
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Charles Horton Cooley
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developed theory of looking glass self
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Looking glass self
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refers to interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we appear to others
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George Herbert Mead
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developed theory of role taking
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role taking
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taking on or pretending to take on the role of others. we learn to see ourselves through the eyes of others.
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significant others
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parents, siblings, relatives, and others with direct influence on our socialization
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generalized others
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the internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society
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I
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unsocialized spontaneous component of personality and self identity
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Me
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the part of ourselves that is aware of the expectations and attitude of society; the socialized self
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agents of socialization
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they describe the specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place
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peer group
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a primary group composed of individuals of roughly the same age and similar social characteristics
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mass media
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instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending information and those receiving it
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total institution
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a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are subject to tight control
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re-socialization
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involves a break with past experiences and the learning of new values and norms
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family
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most important agent in socialization
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school
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where socialization is mostly deliberate; school functions help prepare students for life in larger society
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biological drives
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humans have certain needs like the hunger drive that makes you want to eat. this drive does not tell you how to eat, what to eat, or when to eat; you learn these things from the environment around you
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birth order
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our personalities are influenced by whether we have brothers or sisters
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parental characteristics
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personalities are influenced by the characteristics of a child’s parents; a parent’s age, job, education, religion…etc.
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the cultural environment
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each culture gives rise to a series of personality traits-model personalities- that are typical of members of that society
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Anna
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found when she was 6 years old, she was unable to walk or talk
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Isabelle
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found when she was 6 and a half; she had been kept in a dark room with her, deaf, mute mother
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Genie
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found at 13-she had been kept in a room naked, she will never learn to fully speak
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nurture
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the suggestion that the social environment contact with other people determines personality

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