sociology chapter 2 questions

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In the animal kingdom, only humans rely on _____ to ensure their survival.
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a. biological programming b. culture c. strength and size d. instinct (b)
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Why did anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon experience culture shock when he first encountered the Yanomamo of South America?
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a. Chagnon was shocked to learn that most aspects of their culture was familiar to him. b. Chagnon was nervous about visiting one of the most technologically advanced societies on Earth. c. Chagnon was shaken by the fact that their culture was so different from what he expected. d. Chagnon was surprised to find that they were friendly and welcomed him warmly. (c)
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What evidence has been found to suggest Homo sapiens of 40,000 years ago had a rapidly developing culture?
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a. cave art and a wide range of tools b. skeletal remains that are remarkably similar to those of humans today c. scrolls and wooden blocks containing a variety of written symbols d. remains from permanent human settlements, including fragments of buildings and carefully dug wells (a)
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One result of high-technology communication, increasing international migration, and an expanding global economy has been ____.
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a. a decrease in the speed with which diseases spread across international borders b. an increase in the number of wars being fought around the world c. a decline in the variety of goods that countries are exporting to other countries d. an decrease in the variety of languages spoken around the world (d)
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Computers are to material culture as ____ are to non-material culture.
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a. teachers b. dishes c. calculators d. laws (d)
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Mores differ from folkways in that mores ____, whereas folkways _____.
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a. have great moral significance; are less import norms that apply to routine or casual interaction. b. are standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful; are specific ideas that people hold to be true c. are ignored by most people; are followed by everyone d. particular rules of behavior that differ from culture to culture; particular rules of behavior followed by all cultures around the world (a)
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Which of the following is the foundation of the process of cultural transmission?
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a. law b. language c. science d. verstehen (b)
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One example of a ____ in U.S. culture is the prohibition against marriage between a father and a daughter.
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a. folkway b. taboo c. manifest function d. sanction (b)
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According to sociologist Robin Williams Jr., people in the United States believe in equality- not equality of condition but rather equality of ____.
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a. wealth b. opportunity c. material comfort d. individual intelligence (b)
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What is an example of an emerging value in the United States?
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a. most people in the United States ignore factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, and social class when judging others. b. increasing numbers of people in the united states believe it is more important to accept one’s fate rather than take control of events. c. more people in the united states now believe that cooperation in daily life is more important than competition. d. more people in the united states think it is important to take time off from work to engage in activities such as reading, travel, or community service (d)
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Technology is defined as
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a. the beliefs that guide people’s behavior. b. an example of \”real\” rather than \”ideal\” culture c. knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings d. culture that is used by society’s elite (c)
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Gerhard Lenski’s concept of sociocultural evolution refers to changes that occur in a society ___
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a. as a result of inequality and conflict it fuels b. as a result of changes in religious thinking c. as a result of increasing population d. as it gains new productive technology (d)
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How do agrarian and horticultural societies differ?
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a. horticultural societies relied on hand tools, whereas agrarian societies used animals and other energy sources for large-scale farming b. horticultural societies marked \”the dawn of civilization\”, whereas agrarian societies mark the beginning of \”modernity\” c. horticultural societies gardened for enjoyment, whereas agrarian societies grew food for profit d. some members of agrarian society refused to to give up hunting and gathering, whereas members of horticultural societies saw the clear advantage of farming (a)
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Carl studies the Aka and Pygmies of Central Africa, two societies that even today rely on on simple tools to kill animals and collect vegetation for food. He studies _____ societies.
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a. agrarian b. horticultural and pastoral c. industrial d. hunting and gathering (d)
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If Alex was born in 1985 in a rich country such as the united states, then he lives in a(n) _____ society.
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a. industrial b. agrarian c. horticultural d. postindustrial (d)
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Which of the following musical styles was the first to be clearly linked to the emergence of a youth culture in the united states?
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a. pop b. rap c. rock-and-roll d. hip hop (c)
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Which of the following technological innovations of recent decades has had the greatest effect in helping spread the English language around the globe in the last twenty years?
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a. cell phone b. internet c. television d. radop (b)
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One example of ______ in the South Florida \”beach crowd\”.
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a. subculture b. counterculture c. horticulture d. high culture (a)
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According to William Ogburn’s analysis, why might there be vocal opposition to the use of stem cells in medical practice?
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a. new elements of material culture develop faster than new elements of nonmaterial culture b. subcultures are slower than countercultures to accept changes c. high culture and popular culture nearly always tend to clash d. all elements of a cultural system tend to change at the same rate (a)
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In the past, U.S. society tended to downplay multiculturalism and to define itself in terms of its European immigrants, especially those from ___.
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a. ireland b. england c. france d. spain (b)
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Sociobiology takes a(n) ___ approach to the study of culture.
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a. structural-functional b. evolutionary c. eurocentric d. multicultural (b)
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Which theoretical approach would most likely lead us to learn that there are fewer women than men in top corporate positions?
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a. feminist theory b. sociobiology c. structural-functional theory d. symbolic-interaction theory
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Which of the following statements illustrates the social conflict approach to culture?
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a. Carey is surprised to find that his friend Melissa believes in multiple religious deities b. Ken is surprised to find that family, joking, and funerals are among the many traits that are cultural universals c. in a capitalist society, people learn to define happiness in terms of material possessions. d. hard work among the Amish not only strengthens families but also provides the discipline necessary for a devout religious life. (c)
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Which of the following statements provides evidence for the structural-functional analysis of culture?
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a. many cultural traits make little or no sense to most members of our society b. all cultural systems give greater wealth and power to some categories of people than to others c. all cultures around the world perform funeral rites and have some form of family d. the \”double standard\” derives from the evolutionary need of men to create offspring and women to raise of offspring (c)
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The family, funeral rites, and jokes are all examples of _____.
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a. cultural relativism b. cultural universals c. material culture d. cultural lag (b)
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Culture acts as a constraint, limiting human freedom because ___.
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a. humans cannot create new culture for themselves. b. culture forces us to make choices. c. much culture is habit, which members of society repeat again and again. d. culture always discourages change (c)
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Culture is a source of human freedom because ____.
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a. as cultural creatures, humans make and remake the world for themselves. b. culture is habitual c. culture does not guide behavior d. all culture changes very quickly (a)
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Humans began to live in permanent settlements and work in specialized occupations approximately _______ years ago.
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a. 40,000 b. 12,000 c. 250,000 d. 4,000 (b)
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The meanings we attach to what we hold as symbols can ____.
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a. can vary according to which species is under consideration b. can very among individuals and groups of people within a single society c. are part of every society’s material culture d. are almost exactly the same among humans everywhere in the world (b)
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Gerhard Lenski used the term ____ to name changes that occur in a society as a result of gaining new technology.
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a. progress b. sociocultural evolution c. revolution d. mechanical solidarity (b)
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Jamez studies small societies in which all members come very close to being socially equal. He studies ____ societies.
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a. postindustrial b. hunting and gathering c. industrial d. horticultural or pastoral (b)
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Which of the following categories of people provides the best example of a counterculture?
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a. republicans b. \”soccer moms\” c. polo players d. neo-nazis (d)
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Which of the following is the best way to identify a distinctive culture?
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a. it has its own language b. it has its own political system c. people create art d. people choose their own art and dressing (a)
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The development of hip-hop music in the inner cities during the 1970s demonstrates ____.
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a. that not all cultural developments catch on and remain part of our way of life b. how this musical style was popular among both urban and rural people c. that low-income people also create cultural patterns that can shape society as a whole d. the power of women to change our life (c)
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Who conducted research with rhesus monkeys and concluded that social isolation produced irreversible damage?
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a. kingsley davis b. jean piaget c. harry and margaret harlow d. george herbert mead (c)
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The text presents evidence that social isolation of young permanent limits _____________.
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a. physical health b. spirituality c. artistic talent d. language acquisition and other development (d)
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Human behavior is primarily ______.
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a. the same everywhere b. determined by biology c. driven by instinct d. based on nurture or societal influences (d)
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According to most sociologists what role does biology play in personality?
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a. humans build their personalities based on a \”wired\” human nature b. personality is entirely instinctively driven c. like behavior in other species, human behavior is biologically set d. nurture matters more than nature; but people do inherit a potential to develop certain traits and abilities. (d)
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According to Freud, which elements of the human personality are constantly in conflict?
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a. id and ego b. eros and id c. id and superego d. ego and superego (c)
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According to Mead, what is \”self\”?
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a. a combination of nature and nurture b. a combination of self-awareness and self-image c. our reaction to how we see others d. a personality developed in DNA (b)
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In which of Erikson’s stages are people most likely to fall in love?
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a. middle adulthood b. young adulthood c. adolescence d. preadolescence (b)
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How does Paiget’s concrete operational stage differ from the former operational stage?
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a. people in the concrete operational stage are in the process of developing language skills, while those in formal operational stage are associating language skills with symbols b. people in the concrete operational stage focus more on yes/no scenarios, whereas those in the formal operational stage can envision a compromise c. people in the formal operational stage focus primarily on sensory input while those in the concrete operational stage focus on concrete symbolic representations of situations d. people in the concrete operational stage can think abstractly, while those in the formal operational stage think primarily in discrete units. (b)
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Which of the following best describes Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
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a. humans move through four periods of development: the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage b. individuals must learn to balance three subconscious drives: the id, the ego, and the suprego c. individuals move through three stages of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional d. men view actions in terms or right and wrong, whereas women view the world through a care and responsibility perspective (c)
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Piano lessons for children are one example of what sociologists call ___.
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a. hidden curriculum b. cultural capital c. looking-glass self d. building superego (b)
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What is one of the downsides of using the internet for education?
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a. students come to expect instantaneous feedback b. there is a lack of useful online material for students c. students can plagiarize without consequences d. information on the internet is generally all the same (a)
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Which of the following factors is probably the most important reason that it is difficult to determine the exact onset of adulthood?
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a. class matters a lot because for wealthy people childhood and adolescence last much longer than for poor people b. not everyone grows at the same rate c. mass media place a premium on youth d. gender inequality keeps women from reaching adulthood at the same time as men (a)
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The pledge of allegiance teaches children to pledge themselves to the united states and its ideals. reciting this pledge in class is one example of what sociologists call ____.
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a. a school’s hidden curriculum b. resocialization c. anticipatory socialization d. the significant other (a)
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______ nations generally have the highest share of children working for income.
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a. highly educated b. low-income c. very modern d. high-income (b)
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Why do many people in the united states feel they lose some of their social identities as they enter old age?
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a. older individuals struggle to fit in with others their age but at the same time wish to develop a unique identity b. according to Erikson, older adults struggle with the challenge of autonomy vs. doubt and shame c. older individuals tend to have poorer health and have a harder time contributing to society d. as people enter old age they retire from roles that have given them identity, pleasure, and prestige. (d)
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The study of aging and the elderly is referred to as ____.
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a. epidemiology b. euthanasia c. gerontology d. elder biology (c)
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In a gerontocracy, ____ have the most wealth, power, and prestige.
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a. child-bearing women b. the strong and healthy youth c. military warriors d. the elderly (d)
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How does health among today’s elderly people differ from that found in the past?
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a. today’s elderly are healthier than previous generations b. today’s elderly have more psychological issues c. today’s elderly are more susceptible to disease d. today’s elderly are more likely to end up in nursing care facilities at a younger age (a)
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In general, what do political liberals view as their responsibility in a free society?
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a. to lessen class differences in order to equalize opportunities b. to take advantage of others’ missteps in order to get ahead c. to minimize the importance of peer culture d. to make the most of themselves in society (a)
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Which of the following concepts correctly identifies the goal of the total institution?
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a. institutionalized b. forced resocialization c. standardized care and employment d. breaking down the criminals’ spirit (b)
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What is the second part of phase of the resocialization process in a total institution such as a prison?
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a. introducing a system of rewards and punishments to encourage specific behavior b. stripping away from privacy measures c. isolation from society d. allowing personal differences in dress and appearance (a)
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What did Gilligan think was the biggest flaw in Kohlberg’s development theory?
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a. it focused only on male subjects b. there were only three developmental stages c. if focused only on people living in industrial nations d. it focused only on white children (a)
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Which of the following traits are lower-income parents, compared to high-income parents, more likely to desire in their children?
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a. independence b. creativity c. obedience d. using imagination (c)
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How does industrialization affect the social standing of elderly members of society relate to younger people?
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a. non-industrialized nations view elderly people as a drain on scare resources b. industrialized nations provide the highest social standing to the oldest people c. industrialized nations revere their elderly more than preindustrial societies d. traditional nations revere the elderly as sources of wisdom; industrialized nations have a more negative view of elderly people (d)
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Political conservatives claim that society ______.
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a. gives us the same opportunities b. can never completely limit people form limiting their dreams c. holds all of us more or less in the same place throughout our lives d. stands in the way of people realizing their dreams (b)
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what is the first step of the resocialization in a total institution such as prison?
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a. the removal of an inmate’s existing identity b. becoming institutionalized c. a system of rewards and punishments d. drug rehabilitation (a)
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Which of the following statuses is an example of an achieved status?
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a. widow b. honor roll student c. cuban d. daughter (b)
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____ is the process by which people act and react in relation to others.
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a. social interaction b. master status c. role set d. achieved status (a)
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In the diversity box, \”physical disability as master status,\” why is blindness sometimes classified as a master status?
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a. blindness is one of many equally important statuses b. blindness crosses all races and classes c. blindness can become the personal trait that others respond to more than any other d. blindness is a status that is attained voluntarily (c)
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Martha works part -time doing house cleaning and watches her 10 year old niece in the mornings. At the night she takes courses at the local community college in hopes of receiving her MA in business. Which of the following terms correctly describes Martha’s status set?
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a. wife, student, sister b. worker, mother, Martha c. child, woman, adult d. worker, aunt, student (d)
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How do ascribed status and achieved status compare?
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a. an ascribed status is how one begins life and an achieved status is how one ends life b. an ascribed status is assigned, but an achieved status is largely earned c. an ascribed status is based on behaviors, but achieved status is based on emotions d. both statuses that come later in life (b)
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A person who is a parent, a student, a waiter can be said to have a(n) ___.
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a. role set b. status set c. ascribed status d. master role (b)
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Which of the following examples illustrates the concept of role strain?
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a. a parent attempts to be a loving companion while still maintaining discipline b. a man is the head of a company, but a talented woman wants his job c. a person who is an author is also a college teacher d. a woman is responsible for housework and has a job outside the home (a)
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We experience ___ when we find ourselves pulled in various directions as we try to respond to the many statuses that we would hold.
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a. role strain b. role exit c. role set d. role conflict (d)
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The process of role exit typically beings as people ____.
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a. begin to doubt their ability to continue in a certain role b. compare themselves to others c. determine that their income is inadequate d. become accustomed to a new role (a)
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The amount that is housework that is the responsibility of women decreases as a nation’s _____ increase(s).
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a. unemployment b. level of economic development c. population d. religious affiliation (b)
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The term role set refers to ____.
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a. a number of different roles attached to a single status b. the rigidity of particular roles in any society c. the behavior expected of a particular status d. a behavior of a certain role (a)
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Enthomethodology is the study of ____.
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a. the way people make sense of their everyday lives b. the effects of gender on societal expectations c. people’s lives around the world d. the differences between ethnicities (a)
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Which of the following statements best expresses the main point of the Thomas theorem?
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a. \”all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players\” b. \”if you believe in yourself strongly enough, you will succeed\” c. \”practice makes perfect\” d. \”laughter is the best medicine\” (b)
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One approach that allows us to study the way people understand everyday realities is called _____.
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a. reality play b. demeanor c. ethnomenthodology d. role conflict (c)
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Because many cultural systems are marked by cultural diversity, reality construction usually involves ______.
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a. understanding and social harmony b. outright conflict c. everyone seeing the same thing d. tensions and choices (d)
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Which of the following best describes Erving Goffman’s \”presentation of self\”?
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a. it is the degree to which a person is authentic in his or her actions b. it is the effects a person’s behaviors have on society c. it is the efforts of a person to convey information to others and control the impressions that other people have of him or her d. it is the ways we feel inside that we never reveal to others (c)
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In dramaturgical analysis, the concept of \”status\” is comparable to what theatrical element?
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a. a set b. a plot or story line c. a \”part\” or character d. the props (c)
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Tact is commonly employed in everyday interaction because _______.
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a. behavior is spontaneous in many respects b. it is taught universally in folktales c. embarrassment creates discomfort for everyone d. parents pass the habit down to their children (c)
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Using dramaturgical analysis, ______ is like a script in a play, supplying dialogue and action.
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a. a culture b. a society c. a role d. a status (c)
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a person’s hands, face, and body are all used in the process of _____.
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a. nonverbal communication b. status identification c. embarrassment d. the Thomas theorem (a)
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happiness, surprise, and fear are example of ______.
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a. humorous feelings in all culture b. nonverbal communication c. universal emotions d. class-based feelings
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Janie works as a flight attendant. While on the job, she smiles and talks cheerfully with travelers. Janie’s actions are an example of _______.
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a. a universal feeling experienced by everyone b. an emotional script provided by an employer c. the joy brought to employees through interacting clients d. the strong sense of pride felt by all people who work for a living (b)
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When added to a word, the suffixes-ette and -ess usually
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a. devalue the word b. create a gender-neutral meaning c. discredit the speaker d. make the meaning of the word unclear (a)
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How is humor created?
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a. by imitating social conventions b. by denying any reality exists c. by contrasting conventional and unconventional d. by ignoring unconventional reality (b)
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Which of the following people is the most likely to experience role conflict?
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a. a college professor who wants to take a sabbatical to Italy b. a business manager who is dating her employee c. a teenage mother who is still attending high school d. a lawyer who wants to practice tort law (c)
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The behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status is called ____.
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a. a role b. role conflict c. master status d. status set (a)
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Piri Thomas’s effort to gain social acceptance by fighting gang leader Waneko demonstrates the validity of ______.
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a. nonverbal communication b. ethnomethodology c. role strain d. the Thomas theorem and socially constructing reality (d)
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Goffman’s concept of dramaturgical analysis involves studyig _____ in terms of theatrical performance.
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a. social inequality b. social interaction c. social status d. culture (b)
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The text explores the roots of emotions and concludes that they have both a ___ and a ____ basis.
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a. biological; culture b. random; social c. spiritual; social d. familial; biological (a)
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When people’s partners and friends define situations in specific ways and encourage them to experience specific feelings, they are providing what sociologists call ____.
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a. emotional scripts b. emotional triggers c. role strain d. role tension (a)
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A(n) ______ status, which can be a matter of race, extreme poverty or wealth, or physical disability, often shapes a person’s entire life in terms of identity.
answer

a. master b. achieved c. ascribed d. strained (a)

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