Sociology Chapter 11

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
suffrage
the right to vote
women’s movement
actions to make women equal to men socially, politically and economically
sexism
the belief that one sex is by nature superior to the other
partriarchy
when men are dominant over women
gender
the behavioral and psychological traits considered appropriate for men and women
gender roles
the specific behaviors and attitudes that a society establishes for men and women
gender traits
opposite of sex; the identity of an individual that varies from culture to culture
gender identity
the awareness of being masculine or feminine as those traits are defined by a culture
Which New Guinean tribe that Margaret Mead studied did men and women care for children; women act bossy and men wear makeup?
Tchambuli
Which New Guinean tribe that Margaret Mead studied did men and women both act aggressive?
Mundugumor
Which New Guinean tribe that Margaret Mead studied did men and women both act passive and emotionally warm?
Arapesh
which culture do men and women act passive, yield and forgiving and do not have gender specific names?
Tahiti
When does most gender socialization begin?
At birth
What gender expectations transferred into education for boys/girls?
Boys: good at math, science and mechanically inclined
Girls: good in reading, social sciences and creative in the arts
What is the most powerful gender socialization agent?
the family
schools peer groups and media…
reinforce gender expectations especially during adulthood
Social inequality probably began because
women would nurse children and required jobs close to home. Men used strength to hunt, trade and protect the group in wars- earned prestige and was seen as dominant gender. Men also owned weapons and had power in the group
What does the conflict theory attribute women subordinance to?
Men control economic and political spheres of society so they have established laws and customs that protect their dominance; they block women’s access to power
Second explanation for persistence of gender roles
institutionalized discrimination- people adopt sexism that justifies male dominance as men have natural qualities that make them superior to women
Why can’t women break through this oppression?
Sexism is a self fulfilling prophecy, therefore, men do not allow women to advance to positions of power and women do not usually attempt to pursue careers in positions of power. Both contribute to women lacking positions of power that could move women equality forward.
Who wrote feminine mystique?
Betty Friedan
which amendment granted women the right to vote?
19
Which amendment sought to move women out of their traditional roles and end discrimination based on sex?
The Equal Rights Amendment (didn’t pass because of 3 votes)
Important amendment of 1972
education amendment- title IX
Education advancements for Women
women make up 57% of total college population; 56% of bachelors degrees; 17% of engineering bachelor’s degrees, 88% of library-science degrees
wage gap in 1960s
58-61 cents to every man’s dollar
wage gap today
75 cents to every dollar
difference in yearly wage earnings
$10,000
glass ceililng
invisible barrier that prevents women from gaining upper level positions in business
second shift
the work working women must do at home after a workday; the leisure gap between men/women account for the less than 10 hours of free time women have per week
medicare
government-sponsored health insurance plan for elderly Americans and Americans with disabilities
medicaid
the state and federally funded health insurance program for low-income individuals
problems with the growing elder population
-less younger workers contributing to money pool for elderly;
-more elderly receiving social security than workers paying into it
-elderly people are living longer and using social security longer
dependency ratio in 1998
3:1
AARP
provides financial aid, travel and prescription drug discounts
other elderly special interest groups
national council of senior citizens; national council of aging; gray panthers
suggestions on ensuring the future of social security
raising the retirement age, cutting benefits or increasing social security payroll taxes
poverty in elderly americans
the government has more practices to bring the elderly out of poverty but only by a few hundred dollars; they still live in near poverty; also, minorities have high poverty rates than whites and elderly are less in poverty than the young

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