sociology 5&6

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Achieved status
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the result of individual effort)
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Ascribed status
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(given at birth)
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Collective consciousness
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. Emile Durkheim argued that collective consciousness develops from people’s participation in common activities and defines it as the body of beliefs common to a community or society—gives people a sense of belonging and a feeling of moral obligation to its demands and values 2. This collective consciousness stems from people’s participation in a society’s institutions, through which they develop a sense of common purpose or solidarity and gain a sense of belonging and a feeling of moral obligation to its demands and values
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Cyberspace interaction
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. When two or more persons share a virtual reality experience via communication and interaction with each other, they are engaged in cyberspace interaction. 2. Cyberspace interaction differs from face-to-face interaction, because certain kinds of nonverbal communication are eliminated and one is free to become a different self or to engage in impression management. 4. This construction of culture through online interaction is of great interest to sociologists.
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Division of labor
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the relatedness of different tasks that develop within society.
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Ethnomethodology
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Ethnomethodology: studying norms by violating them to reveal people’s standards. See how people react to disruption and what they do to restore the normative order. The basic premise of this approach is that everyone expects the same things.
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Impression management
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Impression management: how one watches and manipulates another’s behavior and adjusts his/her own to the other’s expectations. Goffman likened this to a con game. Goffman called this the dramaturgical approach, which is a way to think about social interaction as a performance in a stage play.
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Imprinting
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Humans have a strong need for affiliation, a tendency that has been likened to imprinting in animals.
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Master status
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the person’s dominant status)
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Nonverbal communication
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is used more often than verbal behavior. e.g. body position, head nods, eye contact, facial expressions, touching, and so on
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Proxemics communication
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communication by varying the physical distance in face-to-face interactions
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Role modeling
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is imitating or copying the way someone else in that role behaves.
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Role set
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are all the roles occupied by the person at a given time.
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Social interaction
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The meaning assigned to any behavior, speech, or action varies from culture to culture. An action that is positive in one culture can be negative in another. For example, shaking the right hand in greeting is a positive action in the United States, but the same action in East India or certain Arab countries might be an insult. Verbal communication is not just about what you say, but also how and to whom you say it. Language is restricted by societal values and tradition. Nonverbal communication is used more often than verbal behavior. e.g. body position, head nods, eye contact, facial expressions, touching, and so on
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Social structure
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; social structure is the patterned relationships within a society
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Status inconsistency
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exists when multiple statuses of an individual are in conflict.
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Status set
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is the combination of statuses an individual occupies simultaneously.
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Tactile communication
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Touch. Tactile communication involves any conveyance of meaning through touch. Patterns of tactile communication are strongly influenced by gender. 2. Nonverbal Communication. a. The meaning of touch (tactile communication) is heavily embedded in power arrangements especially with regard to gender.
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What is the relationship between culture and society?
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society Includes both culture and social organization
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What did Emile Durkheim mean by the term \”suis generis\”?
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a reality unique to itself and irreducible to its composing parts
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Compare and contrast macroanalysis and microanalysis and list some examples of each.
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Macroanalysis – a sociological approach that takes the broadest view of society by studying large patterns of social interaction that are vast, complex, and highly differentiated. 3. Microanalysis – the focus is on the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life, such as specific people interacting with each other. 4. This chapter examines social organization in sequence from macroanalysis to microanalysis. 5. Sociologists use the term social organization to describe the order established in social groups at every level.
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Sociologists who investigate social organization tend to come up with what findings?
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This chapter examines social organization in sequence from macroanalysis to microanalysis. 5. Sociologists use the term social organization to describe the order established in social groups at every level.
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Why are social institutions an important concept within sociology?
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established and organized systems of social behavior with recognized purposes and objectives. 1. The major institutions in society include the family, education, work and the economy, the political institution (or state), religion, and health care, mass media, organized sports, and the military. 2. Functionalists take the position that social institutions exists to meet universal needs within all societies, although societies do not perform the functions in the same way or by means of the same institutions. Functions include: • the socialization of new members of the society • the production and distribution of goods and services • replacement of the membership • the maintenance of stability and existence • providing the members with an ultimate sense of purpose 3. Conflict theory notes that social institutions do not meet the needs of all people equally. In the United States, race-ethnicity, class, and gender shape major institutional operating behaviors and patterns of interaction.
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What would the conflict theorists say about social institutions?
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established and organized systems of social behavior with recognized purposes and objectives. 1. The major institutions in society include the family, education, work and the economy, the political institution (or state), religion, and health care, mass media, organized sports, and the military. 2. Functionalists take the position that social institutions exists to meet universal needs within all societies, although societies do not perform the functions in the same way or by means of the same institutions. Functions include: • the socialization of new members of the society • the production and distribution of goods and services • replacement of the membership • the maintenance of stability and existence • providing the members with an ultimate sense of purpose 3. Conflict theory notes that social institutions do not meet the needs of all people equally. In the United States, race-ethnicity, class, and gender shape major institutional operating behaviors and patterns of interaction.
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What are the main differences between preindustrial and postindustrial societies?
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preindustrial-use, modify, and/or till the land as a major means of survival, can be any of 4 types: foraging (hunting-gathering), pastoral, horticultural, or agricultural. Postindustrial Societies – are economically dependent on the production and distribution of service, information, and knowledge. 1. Highly advanced technologies are central to the economy. 2. Multinational corporations link postindustrial economies.
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Describe the characteristics of each of the following types of societies: foraging, pastoral, agricultural, and horticultural.
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foraging-hunting and gathering pastoral-There is not an explicit form of social organization associated with pastoralism. Pastoral societies are often organized in tribes, with the ‘household,’ often incorporating the extended family, as a basic unit for organization of labor and expenses[1] Lineages are often the root for property rights. Mobility allows groups of pastoralists to leave and regroup as resources permit, or as sought after with changes in social relations. agricultural-producing and maintaining crops horticultural-studying and cultivating plants
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How is social cohesion achieved in industrial societies?
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mechanical solidarity-Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds. organic solidarity Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
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What are some characteristics of a \”group\”?
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interact and communicate with each other share goals and norms have a subjective awareness of themselves as a distinct social unit
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What are the primary differences between a \”status\” and a \”role\”?
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status-is an established position in a social structure that carries a degree of social rank or value. role-expected behavior associated with a particular status
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What’s the difference between \”role conflict\” and \”role strain\”?
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Role conflict: When two or more roles impose conflicting expectations. Role strain is conflicting expectations within a single role.
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Patterns of touch are strongly influenced by a person’s gender. What have sociologists found to be true and not true regarding this issue?
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Touch. involves any conveyance of meaning through touch. Patterns of tactile communication are strongly influenced by gender.
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How is the social construction of reality related to symbolic interaction theory?
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Social interaction, behavior between two or more people that is meaningful, is the foundation of society, which sociologists refer to as sui generis. 4. Sui generis means that society is an organismic entity comprised of different parts working together to create a unique whole. a. The life of a society is patterned on social interactions but is something that endures and takes on a shape and structure beyond any particular group. b. Sociologists try to picture society as a whole by scientifically examining its separate parts (institutions, agent of socialization, social networks, etc.). This method allows sociologists to recognize and understand the relatedness of the parts to each other and to the whole. Society is vast and complex.
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Goffman’s theory on dramaturgy views human experience as if it were a performance. But more specifically, what did Goffman argue for?
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how one watches and manipulates another’s behavior and adjusts his/her own to the other’s expectations. Goffman likened this to a con game. Goffman called this the dramaturgical approach, which is a way to think about social interaction as a performance in a stage play.
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Attribution theory
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A way of explaining others’ behavior by either their disposition or their situation.
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Coalition
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Triadic segregation is what Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a coalition of the dyad against the isolate. The isolate in turn can form a coalition with either dyad member; a principle Simmel called tertius gaudens (\”the third one gains\”).
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Dyad
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is a group of two people.
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Expressive needs
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Primary groups serve expressive needs.
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Risky shift
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) is the tendency for groups to weigh risk differently than individuals. 1. Most but not all group discussion leads to greater risk-taking. 2. The most convincing explanation of risky shift is that deindividuation occurs—the sense that one’s self has merged with a group. 3. Deindividuation is a group size effect. As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
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Group
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Primary groups – building blocks of social interaction Reference groups – help form our attitudes/life goals.
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Group size effect
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George Simmel (1902) discovered the group size effect; he observed how group size influences the behavior of the members.
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Groupthink
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Groupthink 1. According to I. L. Janis, groupthink is the tendency for group members to reach a consensus opinion, even if that decision is downright stupid. 2. Janis investigated five ill-fated presidential decisions. All were decisions make by a small group of expert advisors, and all were fiascoes. The common pattern of misguide thinking in his investigations of presidential decisions included the following: • an illusion of invulnerability, • a falsely negative impression of those who are antagonists to the group’s plans, • discouragement of dissenting opinion, and • an illusion of unanimity. 3. A similar pattern of pressure to conform is found in the behavior of juries
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Ideal type
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Actual bureaucracies rarely conform to the ideal type because of informal structure—social interactions in bureaucratic settings that ignore, change, or otherwise bypass the formal structure and rules of the organization—a condition described as bureaucracy’s other face by sociologist Charles Page a. a high degree of division of labor and specialization. b. hierarchy or authority. c. rules and regulations. d. impersonal relationships. e. career ladders. f. efficiency.
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Instrumental needs
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serve secondary groups
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McDonaldization
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George Ritzer coined the term McDonaldization of society to refer to the increasing and ubiquitous presence of the fast-food model in most of the organizations that shape daily life. 2. The four dimensions of McDonaldization are: a. efficiency – moving production in a streamlined path from start to finish, b. calculability – an emphasis on the quantitative aspects of the products being sold, c. predictability – assurance of product consistency, and d. control – machine-line movements of customers and workers. 3. McDonaldization brings many benefits, but also poses the danger of dehumanization.
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Organizational culture
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Shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employee
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Organizational ritualism
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This refers to a rigid adherence to rules as an end in itself, regardless of whether the purpose for the rules is accomplished. a. Organizational ritualism, can have disastrous consequences, as demonstrated by the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986, and the breakup of the Columbia in 2003.
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Polarization shift
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Risky Shift (or polarization shift) is the tendency for groups to weigh risk differently than individuals. 1. Most but not all group discussion leads to greater risk-taking. 2. The most convincing explanation of risky shift is that deindividuation occurs—the sense that one’s self has merged with a group. 3. Deindividuation is a group size effect. As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
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Total institution
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Coercive organizations—what Erving Goffman described as total institutions—are organizations cut off from the rest of society. a. Examples are prisons and psychiatric hospitals. b. One population – inmates – who reside there are subjected to complete and strict social control by another population – staff —by strict routines and security measures.
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Triad
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3 person group
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What did George Simmel’s study on group dynamics find?
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Georg Simmel (1858-1918) is known as the discoverer of group size effects. He found that the mere difference between a dyad and a triad spawned entirely different group dynamics. 2. Triadic segregation is what Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a coalition of the dyad against the isolate. The isolate in turn can form a coalition with either dyad member; a principle Simmel called tertius gaudens (\”the third one gains\”).
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What are the main differences between primary and secondary groups? List some examples of each.
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. The primary group is defined as a group consisting of intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships. a. Primary groups serve expressive needs. b. This has a powerful influence on an individual’s personality or self-identity. 3. Secondary groups are those that are larger in membership, less intimate, and less long-lasting. a. Secondary groups serve instrumental needs. b. These tend to be less significant in one’s emotional life. 4. Both types can, however, serve either instrumental or expressive needs. 5. In times of crisis or high stress, secondary groups take on the characteristics of primary groups. People in a work group often develop intimate ties.
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What did sociologists find in their study of groups of different sizes?
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Deindividuation is a group size effect. As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
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Describe the differences between in-groups and out-groups.
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In-Groups are social groups which you belong to. It provides a sense of identity as\”us.\” Out-groups are complementary and are referred to as\”them\”; you are not a member of that group.
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List some examples of both reference groups and attribution groups.
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Reference groups – provide standards for evaluating your values, attitudes, and behaviors You may or may not belong to this group Strongly influence one’s aspirations, self-evaluation, and self-esteem Examples include: major league sports teams, popular bands and/or classical musicians and super models. Attribution theory research shows that individuals commonly generate an attribution error—a significantly distorted perception of the motives and capabilities of other people’s acts based on whether that person is an in-group or out-group member. b. Rather than give up our prejudices about out-groups, we are more likely to invent explanations for non-stereotypic behavior that preserve our original bias. c. Typical attribution errors include racial and gender misperceptions.
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What are some examples of social networks and how are they formed?
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are links between individuals, groups, or other social units The strength of network links varies, yet ones that are weak still connect us to other networks Networks help us achieve many of our objectives facebook, are sets of links between individuals or between other social units. 1. Networks based on race, class, and gender form with particular readiness, especially job networks. 2. The small world problem has shown that networks reach around the world, making it effectively smaller for members of that network. A recent study of Black national leaders shows that the Black leaders form a denser network than the long-established White leadership.
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According to social psychologist Philip Zimbardo, how do most people respond to hearing about the overly conforming behavior of others in groups?
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The groups in which we participate exert tremendous influence on us. Despite what social psychologist Philip Zimbardo calls the Not-Me Syndrome in reference to in-group conformity, sociological experiments reveal a dramatic gulf between what people think they will do and what they actually do.
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What did Solomon Asch find in his classic study of conformity? .
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Asch’s experiment showed that even clear objective facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence. 2. In replications of his study, one-third to one-half of the subjects make a judgment contrary to objective fact, yet in conformity with the group. 3. The pressure to conform rises as the number of confederates increases.
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Define and describe deindividuation.
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Deindividuation is a group size effect. As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
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What are the differences between formal, normative, voluntary, coercive, and utilitarian organizations?
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formal-is a large secondary group is highly organized to do a complex task(s) achieves goals efficiently has activities that are regulated/defined in advance Is a place where conformity is expected/formally enforced Examples: schools, churches, political parties, and governments normative-voluntary organizations participants share like values and moral standards group activities are worthwhile Examples: PTA, choirs, bull-fighting clubs, monasteries Coercive organizations are: total institutions membership is largely involuntary Examples: Prisons and detention centers Utilitarian groups are: large organizations either for-profit or nonprofit members join for specific purposes, such as monetary reward Examples: Microsoft, General Motors
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Describe a bureaucracy and list some examples
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B. Bureaucracy 1. A bureaucracy is a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality. Max Weber analyzed the classic, general defining, characteristics of bureaucracy (the ideal type bureaucracy) as including: a. a high degree of division of labor and specialization. b. hierarchy or authority. c. rules and regulations. d. impersonal relationships. e. career ladders. f. efficiency. C. Bureaucracy’s Other Face 1. Actual bureaucracies rarely conform to the ideal type because of informal structure—social interactions in bureaucratic settings that ignore, change, or otherwise bypass the formal structure and rules of the organization—a condition described as bureaucracy’s other face by sociologist Charles Page. 2. This informal structure develops its own norms, as with any culture. 3. Subcultures develop within bureaucracies as people attempt to humanize an otherwise impersonal organization. 4. The informal culture can also become exclusionary, increasing the isolation that some workers feel at work. 5. Sexual harassment can become an aspect of the informal culture of bureaucracies. 6. Informal norms can increase or decrease worker productivity, as demonstrated in the classic Hawthorne Studies. D. Problems of Bureaucracies 1. Problems of bureaucracies include the already discussed risky shift and groupthink. 2. Ritualism – This refers to a rigid adherence to rules as an end in itself, regardless of whether the purpose for the rules is accomplished. a. Organizational ritualism, can have disastrous consequences, as demonstrated by the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986, and the breakup of the Columbia in 2003. 3. Alienation – This occurs when stresses on rules and procedures within bureaucracies result in a decrease in the overall cohesion of the organization. Alienation can be widespread in organizations where workers have little control over what they do, or where workers are treated like machines. E. The McDonaldization of Society 1. George Ritzer coined the term McDonaldization of society to refer to the increasing and ubiquitous presence of the fast-food model in most of the organizations that shape daily life. 2. The four dimensions of McDonaldization are: a. efficiency – moving production in a streamlined path from start to finish, b. calculability – an emphasis on the quantitative aspects of the products being sold, c. predictability – assurance of product consistency, and d. control – machine-line movements of customers and workers. 3. McDonaldization brings many benefits, but also poses the danger of dehumanization. F. Diversity: Race, Gender, and Class in Organizations 1. Since organizations tend to reflect patterns within the broader society, the hierarchical structure of positions is marked by inequality in race, gender, and class relations. Women and minorities confront a \”glass ceiling\” effect. The more egalitarian the firm’s environment, the more equitable will be its treatment of women and minorities. 2. Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s research shows how the structure of organizations leads to obstacles in the advancement of groups that are tokens in the organizational environment. Such groups experience great stress and have difficulties gaining credibility not only with their superiors, but with their co-workers as well. 3. Social class also plays a part in determining people’s place within formal organizations. In response to a changing workforce, diversity training has become commonplace in most large organizations. IV. Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives 1. The functionalist perspective focuses on the positive functions—called eufunctions—of bureaucracies, as well as the problems of bureaucracies—their dysfunctions. 2. The conflict perspective argues that the hierarchical nature of bureaucracy encourages conflicts between superior and subordinate, as well as conflicts based on race, ethnicity, gender, and social class. 3. The symbolic interaction perspective underlies the theories of Argyris (which focuses on self-actualization as a way of reducing organizational dysfunctions) and Ouchi (which argues for increased supervisor-subordinate interaction).

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