Sociology 3/8

Socialization: ____, _____
pre-socialized attributes of humans
very educated socialization

content of human world material and nonmaterial

Instincts are important to the animal world, programming of humans is ____.

Individual Attributes:
Intellectual Aptitude
Sexual Preferences
“Talent” can be genetic

Blank Slate Steven Pinker
parents think they can mould their children

Socialization Process:
Conscious/ Deliberate
Unconscious/ Non-deliberate

Suicidal thoughts goes against the view that humans want to _____.
prolong their survival

People have the capabilitites and the ____ to make choices.

Critical Stage of Development is:
8-18 months
if a child is not stimulated than they will suffer

Critical Stage also claims that______.
people are shaped by experiences

Pre-Socialization Physical Being:
Physical features
Potential/ maturation

Human “nature” attributes:

Socialization process by which people learn how to use things around them, taking a human baby and turning them into _____.
social being

Middle-class kids feel like they are working toward the future and have a _____ trying to.

When people have an environment without stability, they choose ______.
lower pleasures

Functions of the Socialization Process:
1. Basic discipline instilled ex: deferred gratification
2. Basic skills taught ex: computer literacy
3. Basic social roles taught ex: sex roles
4. Basic social values/ aspirations instilled ex: ambitious, teaching children what gender to identify with

Chapter 3 Deber Cheaters, Liars, and Survivors Wilding Culture in the Media, Sports, College Campuses and Everyday Life
People are committing violent crimes and when they beat the system they are more likely to do so

US is becoming a nation of crooks
media portrays success as easy
reality tv creates wilding culture like that of the Ik
students believe that it is every person for themself

Deber Chapter 3 continued
cynicism is on the rise
crimes on campuses are rising
cheating is increasing
wilding is most disturbing in sports when refrees do it
Video games promote violence

Deber Chapter 3 continued part
Philipee Bourgois anthropologist spent 5 years living in a tenment in East Harlem trying to get inside the minds of crack dealers
Inner- city children bear a resemblance to careerist college students more than anyone else

Wilding at the top is the same as wilding at the bottom
For most inner-city youth, drug (crack) dealing is only path to the American Dream

Socialization is a lifelong social experience where develop their ____ and ____.
human potential and learn culture

Humans are unlike any other animals since behavior is ____ and is biological in other animals.

person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling

People form their personality by taking in their ____.

Behaviorism is not instinctive, but ____.

Nurture is more in shaping our ____.

John B. Watson
believed that human behavior is rooted in nuture, not in nature
whether a person develops their inherited potential depends on how they were raised
if children do not use their brains early in life, then they do not develop

100,000 years ago people believed that they were born with instincts that determined ____ and _____.
personality and behavior

Darwin’s theory led people to believe that human behavior was instinctly in their nature, some people were born _____ and others were born ____.

Mass Media
means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience

Mass media introduces people to ____ and ____ that are new and different.

study of aging and elderly

Child labor is most common in ____ and _____.

Total Institution
setting in which people are isolated from rest of society and controlled by administrative staff

Societies organize life according to ____, _____, ____, _____, ______.

category of people with something in common, usually age

radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment

Children are more focused on ______.
immediate grafitication

Women are doing better in college than men, wives may ____ more than their husbands.

Anticipatory Socialization
children learning roles that they may be in the future
ex: boys and girls play house

Sociologists classify statuses in terms of how people ___ them

behavior expected of someone who holds particular status

Men who often tell jokes about women hold some ____ toward them.

Humor is a universal element of human _____.

Key to humor is the ________ we can see why the climax of the joke is termed the punch line.
collision of realities

Capacity for emotion arose in our ancestors along with capacity for _____.

Orrin Klapp Heros, Villians and Fools
Splendid Performers
Social Acceptability Models
Independent Spirits
Group Servants

American Cultural Values
Economic Success… hard work… efficiency
Social: Progress… Individualism
Political: Equality of opportunity… freedom
Religion: Morals humanitarian

Harry and Maraget Harlow 1962 found that
monkeys could not recover from isolation after 6 month period, but could recover from 3 months
monkeys were passive, fearful and anxious
monkeys benefited from closeness and infants cradling is important

Kingsley Dav found Anna
showed progress learned to walk, showed more interest in people
mental development not that of her age
died from a blood disorder at 10

____ is very damaging to a child’s environment personalities are shaped by the people who we live with.

Freud claimed that biology plays main role in human development and he also believed that humans have 2 drives present at birth:
1. need for bonding “life instincts” eros
2. agressive drive “death for instincts” and nanatos

The two opposing forces that Freud mentioned operate at ____ level and create inner tension.

competing demands of self and society changes selfish drives into socially acceptable behavior

1996 American Medical Association claimed that violence in tv and movies causes ____ to health.

Socialization isn’t a simple learning process, but rather a complex balancing act as we ____ info from many sources.

Children in Taiwan and Indonesia make products that people use and do work that is ____ and _____ harmful.

Kids 10-12 yrs old have the same interests and experiences that a 12-14 yr old had a generation ago, which causes a greater level of ____ and _____.

People who have the greatest risk of poverty are between the ages of ______.

People in low-income countries respect the elderly for their ___ and ____ of land
control of land

Number of elderly outnumber teens and is expected to _____.

______ weakens social standing of elderly and gives it to younger people.

form of social organization where elderly have most power, wealth, prestige

Culture in the form of ____ represses selfish demands which force people to look beyond their own desires.

The id and superego are in conflict, but in a well-adjusted person, ___ manages opposing forces, if conflicts are not resolved in childhood then personality disorders may develop.

Freud’s modle of personality consists of 3 parts:
1. Id- humans basic needs present at birth, unconscious, need immediate satisfaction Latin “in it”
2. Ego- conscious efforts to balance innate pleasures seeking drives with demands of society Latin “I”
3. Superego- cultural values and norms interalized by individual Latin “above or beyond”

Jean Piaget
came up with 4 stages of development
studied how people think and understand

Jean Piaget’s 4 stages of development:
1. Sensorimotor Stage
2. Preoperational Stage
3. Concrete Operational Stage
4. Formal Operational Stage

Sensorimotor Stage
level of human dev people experience world only through their senses
“knowing” to a young child is what their senses tell them

Preoperational Stage
level of human dev people first use their language and other symbols
2-6yrs cant judge size, weight, volume

Concrete Operational Stage
level of human dev people see causal connections in their surroundings
7-11 yrs focus on how and why things happen

Formal Operational Stage
level of human dev people think abstractly and critically
7 yr old may want to be a teacher, teenagers have ability to reason critically

30% of people never reach ______.
Formal Operational Stage

Charles Horton Cooley
Looking-glass self- self-image based on how we think others see us

Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development was built off of ____ work to study moral reasoning.
Young children experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure(Piaget’s sensorimotor stage and L’s preconventional stage

Lawrence defined the second level as:
conventional level
lose sense of selfishness define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and confines to norms

Lawerence third level:
Postconventional level
people move beyond society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principles such as freedom, liberty and justice

Peer Group:
has short term influence on a person, what tv shows, music they like but do not have long term influence such as going to college parents have that
people view their own group as positive and others as negative

study way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
everyday behavior rests on a number of assumptions

Social interaction is a complex negotiation builds ____.

Erving Goffman (1961) total institutions have 3 important characteristics:
1. Staff members supervise all aspects of daily life, including where residents live, sleep, work
2. Life in total institutions is controlled and standardized with same food, uniforms, acitivities ofr everyone.
3. Formal rules dictate when, where, and how inmates perform their daily routines

Children in higher societies(America) can be successful despite a poor upbringing, this a part of ____, prepares children for the real world.

Resocialization has 2 parts:
1. Staff breaks down new inmate’s existing identity
2. Staff tries to build new self in inmate through system of rewards and punishments

Total institutions affect people in different ways, they can become ____, hostile or rehabilitated ____.

Some people have lost the capacity for ____ after living in a prison.
independent living

Agents of Socialization:
1. Family
2. Peers
3. School
4. Other Institutions – Church/Daycare/ work
5. Media

Educational Process is more geared toward taking tests which might take away from ____.
more important things

_____ has become part of socialization.

Tv promotes ____ behavior.

Internet benefits a person more than tv since it is more ____.

Patterns of Socialization:
1. Non Socialization
2. Feral Children-raised by animals more animal like than childlike
3. Extremely isolated children
4. Institutionalized children

Feral children are less developed than ____.

Inadequate or flawed socialization:
1. Psychopaths- kill people and do not feel guilty
2. Prodigies- some children are raised to be this by parents but lack in other areas

Psychopaths do not accknowledge ____ therefore they have no guilt when they sin.
conscious sin

total institutions

Impact of Socialization:
Oversocialized conception (wrong)

Social Construction of Reality
process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction

People build reality from their surrounding ____.

Physical disability can be defined as a _____ and we dehumanize them.
master status

People with powerful ascribed statuses are more like to be in more successive in _____.

Erikson believed that the way a person experiences things ____ them.

Stages of Socialization Moral Kohlberg:
l. Pre-moral
2. Convent
3. 10-11 Principled

Stages of Socialization Mead:
1. Imitation 1-2
2. Play 4-5
3. Game 7-8

Robert Merton (1968)
introduced term “role set”

Role Set
number of roles attached to a single status

Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh found that:
unv. prof. heft convenant studied her own experience as person leaving the covenant
studied ex nuns, doctors, husbands, alcoholics
process starts when people start to doubt their abiltity to live a certain role
As people imagine alternative roles they reach a tipping point start to pursue a new life
past can interfere with building new sense of self

Harold Garfinkel came up with ethnometholody in

Thomas Theorem
situations defined as real are real in their consequences
when applies to social interaction, reality is “soft” as it is being shaped and “hard” applies to how it can become effects

Baldovino suggests that quite a bit of reality remains unclear in everyone’s mind expecially in _____.
unfamiliar situations

Dramaturgical Analysis
study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
offers a fresh look at concepts of status and role

Erving Goffman
sociologist analyzed social interaction explaining how people live their lives is much like actors in a play

Goffman described each person’s performance as ______.
presentation of self

Presentation of Self
person’s effort to create specific impressions in the minds of others

Nonverbal Communication
provides clues of deception changes in breathing, pulse rate, perspiration, blood pressure

Key to detecting lies is to view the whole performance and keep an eye for _____.

____ is central element in personal communication.

Women are socialized to respond to others so they are more ____ to communication than men.

____ way we act and carry ourselves is clue to social power.

Women are more careful in crafting their _____ than men.
personal experience

Men with more ____ intrude a woman’s personal space.
social power

3 important dimensions of everyday life:
1. emotions
2. language
3. humor

Women contain more eye contact than men, but when men stare at women they are claiming ____ and defining women as objects, if a woman moves into his personal space he is likely to take that as a sign of interest.
sexual dominance

In a male dominated world, women ___ more than men.

People often use idealization when they are being nice to someone they _____.
dont like

we try to idealize our intentions to convince ourselves and others that our actions reflect cultural ideals rather than selfish motives

Men usually touch women more than women touch men, proving their ___ which suggests caring and intimacy.

Many performances involve juggling many elements that one thoughtless moment can shatter _____.
intended impression

Goffman describes embarrassment as ____.
losing face

Embarrassment is present danger since idealized persons usually contain some ____.

Tact is helping someone “save face,” according to Lincoln it is the ability to
describe others the way they see themselves

Embarrassment creates discomfort for the actor and audience, since they are reminded of how _____ their own performance is.

Paul Ekman 6 basic emotions:
1. fear
2. happiness
3. anger
4. fear
5. disgust
6. surprise

Culture plays an important role in guiding our human _____.

Emotions allow serve social purpose allows us to overcome indivdualism and build connections with _____.

Language helps men establish control over their surroundings, so they attach a ____ to show ownership over it.

Cultural side of emotions:
1. Ekman explains culture defines what triggers an emotion
2. Culture provides rule for displaying emotions
3. Culture guides how we value our emotions

Arlie Russell Hochschild
found people are freer to express their emotions at home than at work
Companies try to control behavior and emotions of employees

Foundation of Humor:
1. reality is conventional
2. reality is unconventional

Extreme Isolation
1940 acocunt of Anna
almost no normal contact for 6 yrs couldn’t walk, talk or do anything that required intelligence

On Becoming Male: Reflections of a Sociologist on Childhood and Early Socialization
Sexuality is a part of our social intelligence
boys learn that despite mom shaking her head is approval
learn limits recognize they have less than girls

On Becoming Male part 2:
boys have two ways of acting the
1. is natural and relaxed, in front of the guys,
2. forced in front of girls

Artificality allows men to meet the expectations that ____ have for them.

Sports games allow men to escape from ____ world feel comfortable away from the demands of sharing and initimacy. Semi-imaginery world sums up feelings of ____ left from childhood.

Some men have overcome masculine socialization into intersexual superficiality and have dev. relationships with women that transcends confines of _____.
cultural dictates

Imitation Stage
children start to play games by rules

Socialization and The Self Categories:
1. Statuses/ Memberships
2. Physical Attributes
3. Personality characteristics
4. Interets

Sources of self-concept:
1. family
2. peers
3. public/media roles
4. Concrete achievements
5. incidents/accidents
6. religious values/beliefs
7. self-imposed goals

Generalized Other: The “I” and “Me” G.H. Mead
beliefs and values and don’t care what others think “I”
people who get up in the morning and wonder what others think of them “me”

Ego is the ____.
voice of reason

conscious values of culture in person

Social Structure Status:
1. Position
2. Attribute
3. Membership

Role Negotiation
negotiation b/w parents and child roles may not clearly be defined

Boyfriend of a single mom has role of father but not ____.

Attacking Nicely: Women Selling Cars
in our society car sales goes against the norms of trust in human relations
being car sales people can be tough for mothers since they are socialized to be mothers and caretakers

Attacking Nicely Part 2:
study shows how women handle conflict b/w socialized role of women and role as car sales people
5 categories Tough Guys, Innocents, Ladies, Reformers, Retreaters
The salesmen thought they were superior to the saleswomen

Behavior in Pubic Places: The Sociology of
Goffman uses dramaturgical framework
genital behavior is problematic for people since they have been socialized to not expose themselves
examine divided into 2 parts, patient as person and patient as pelvic

Behavior Part 2
nurse stays as chaperone
doctor doesn’t carry on conservation with patient, he does so with the nurse isnt against etiquette since patient is dehumanized
patient studied alienation from interaction and demonstrates dramaturgical discipline

2 types of social groups:
1. Primary
2. Secondary

2 leadership roles:
1. Instrumental- focuses on completion of tasks
2. Expressive- focuses on group’s well-being

Non- conformist was
Michael Jackson

Robert Merton’s Strain Theory has more to do with the success of men since women are more _____ to define it in terms of their relationships.

Men escape direct responsibilities for their actions that victimize women since men put themselves in positions of ____ over women.

Sutherland explains white-collar crime usually ends up in civil hearing rather than ___.

3 leadership styles:
1. Authorization
2. Democractic
3. Lassiez- faire

Milgram and Asch:
got strangers to conform to visual perception
had actors purposely say wrong answer to see if the one person would conform

Stouffer’s Research showed that:
soliders who were in units with low production rates were actually more positive about their chances to move ahead
key to understanding this results lies in groups agaisnt which soldiers measure themselves

was explored by German sociologist in smallest social groups
Greek for “pair” designates social group with 2 members more intense than other interactions

Simmel studied
group with 3 members

Peter Blau points out 3 ways social diversity influences intergroup contact:
1. large groups turn inward
2. hetergenous groups turn outward
3. physical boundaries create social boundaries

web of weak social ties

Internet is the largest ____ in the world.

Presentation of Self the is ____ appraoch

Evaluation of Role Playing Erving Goffman
Substantive + student is actually absorbing info in class even though it appears they are sleeping
Symptomatic- person appears to be sleeping in class

When the role made me do it, we are engaging in ___-.

Role Distance
person claims that a role made them do something

Role Repetorire in sum:
1. Not all roles played simultaneously
2. Repetoire undergoes chnage
3. “weight” assigned to various roles
4. One role as primary identity role

Social Organization:
1. Aggregate (Population Collectivity)
2. Category(Community)
3. Association
4. Social Group

Norms guide most human activities so the concept of ___ is too broad.

Deviance is recognized as a violation of ____.
cultural norms

One category of deviance is

Minor instances of nonconformity are

Social Control
attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors

How society defines deviance, who is the deviant and what people decide to do about deviance is all a part of the way that society is ___.

Lombroso claimed that criminals have features that ___ them from the rest of society.

William Sheldon
suggest body structure might predict criminality
parents are somewhat distant from powrfully built boys and grow up to show less sensitivity toward others

3 foundations of deviance are:
1. deviance varies to cultural norms
2. people become more deviant as people define them that way
3. Norms and the ways people define rule breaking involve social power

Norms and how we apply them reflect ____.
social inequality

Functions of Deviance: Structural- Functional Analysis:
1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
2. Responding to deviance declares moral boundaries
3. Responding to deviance brings people together
4. Deviance encourages social change

Durkheim claims there is nothing abnormal about ____.

Durkheim claimed that today’s deviance can be tomorrow’s ___.

Durkheim claimed that deviance is a necessary element of social organization and serves several important ___-.

Erikson’s study of Puritans of Mass Bay to life
Erikson showed that even Puritans used deviance to clarify ____.
moral boundaries

Durkheim claimed that every society ____ deviants to mark changing moral boundaries.

Merton’s Strain Theory:
Conformity lies in pursuing cultural goals through approved ___.
deviance may be necessary for society to function
too much deviance results from particular social arrangements

Merton’s strain between our cultures emphasizes wealth and lack of opportunities is what make some poor get involved in _____. Merton called this kind of deviance innovation using conventional means(street crime) to achieve culturally approved goals (wealth).
stealing, drug dealing, street crime

Inability to reach cultural goal attribute to another type of deviance Merton called ____.

rejecting both cultural goals and means so that one in effect “drops out”
3rd response to the inability to succeed

4th response to the inability to succeed is rebellion rejects cultural definition of ___ and conventional means of achieving it form counterculture supporting alternatives to ____.
existing social order

Deviant Subcultures
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Onlin extended Merton’s theory proposed that crime results not from limited legitimate (legal) opportunity but also from illegimate (ilegal) opportunity

Deviance or Conformity depends on the ____ that frames a person’s life.
relative opportunity structure

When people are unable to find any opportunities legal or ilegal then deviance may take 2 forms:
1. Conflict Subcultures- armed street gangs regurlarly engage in violence
2. Retreatist Subcultures-deviants drop out and abuse alcohol or other drugs

Walter Miller claims deviant youth is characterized by:
1. trouble with police and teachers
2. toughness- physical size, strength particularly among men
3. Smartness- ability to succeed on streets
4. Need for excitement
5. A belief in fate
6. A desire for freedom

Elijah Anderson explains that in many poor neighborhoods, people manage to conform to _____.
conventional “decent” values

Durkheim’s important contribution was ____.
pointing out the functions of deviance

Structural-Functional theories suggest that everyone who breaks rules will be labeled ___.

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis:
explains how people come to see deviance in everyday situations

Central Contribution to Symbolic- Interaction Analysis is ____.
Labeling Theory- idea deviance and conformity result not from what people do, but how others respond to those actions

Labeling Theory allows people to define a behavior in ____.
a number of different ways

Social Construction of reality is highly variable process of ____, ____ and ____.

Projective Labeling
uses a deviant identity to predict one’s future

Degradation Ceremony
entire community stigmatizes person in public way
like a graduation although person is publicly viewed negative rather than as positive

Retrospective Labeling
reinterpretation of the person’s past in light of some present deviance

Retrospective Labeling distorts a person’s biography by being highly selective which usually deepens a _____.
deviant identity

Primary Deviance
Lemert observed norm violations such as skipping school
after an audience has noticed someone’s primary deviance the person may start to change by taking on a deviant identity by talking, acting, or dressing in a way which differs from rejecting people who are critical and constantly break the rules

Secondary Deviance
marks beginning of what Erving called deviant career
people develop understanding of their deviant behavior and acquire a stigma

People usually think of behavior that irriates or threatens them not simply as “different” but as ____ or ____.
mental illness

Thomas Szaz
people are too quick to label mental illness to conditions that simply amount to differences we don’t like

Medicalization of Deviance:
transformations of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
behaviors that were strictly moral matters are widely defined today as illnesses which people need help rather than punishment

Difference labels make, whether defined as a medical or moral issue has 3 consequences:
1. It affects who responds to deviance
2. How people respond to deviance
3. 2 labels differ on the issue of competence for deviant person

Sutherland’s Differential Theory:
person’s tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on amount of contact with others who reject or encourage conventional behavior

Hirschi’s Control Theory:
states social control depends on people anticipating consequences of their behavior
those who think they have little are more likely to break the rules

H linked conformity to 4 diff. types of social control
1. Attachment
2. Opportunity
3. Involvement
4. Belief

Deviance and Equality Social- Conflict Anaylsis:
links deviance to social inequality
who or what is labeled deviant depends on categories people hold power in a society

Liazos says that people define deviants as those who are

Social- Conflict Theory explains how minorities carry stigma of deviance:
1. All norms especially laws of any society reflect interests of rich and powerful
2. Powerful have resources to resist deviant behavior
3. Widespread belief that norms and laws are “just” and good masks their potential character

Steven Spitzer followed Marxist tradition argues deviant labels are applied to people who interfere with the operation of captialism:
1. Capitalism is based on private control of property, therefore the poor stealing from the rich is deviant
2. Capitalism depends on productive labor so those who do not and cannot work may be labeled as “deviant”
3. Operation of capitalism depends on authority, so those who reject it could be considered deviant
4. Anyone who directly changes status quo is like to be defined as “deviant.”

Society positively labels whatever supports operation of capitalism Ex:
Athletes celebrate when they win championships

Capitalist System tries to control those who do not fit into the ____.

Social- Conflict Analysis doesn’t address issue of ____.

The Presentation of Everyday Self by Erving Goffman 135-146:
Goffman presents dramaturgical model of human life
When person “enters into the presence of others” they try to acquire information about the person through info they already know
By acquiring info a person know how to act in a situation to get a desired response

The Presentation of Everyday Self Part 2:
The expressiveness of individual appears to give two radically different kinds of activity: the expression he gives and expression he gives off

The Presentation of Everyday Self Part 3:
first involves verbal symbols/ substitutes he uses admittedly and solely convey info he and others are known to attach to these symbols involves deceit.
second wide range of action that others can treat as symptomatic of the actor, expectation being actions performed for reasons other than information conveyed in this way.

It is in an individual’s interest to control ___ of others.

Symmetry of Communication Process:
witness usually has more power over actor regardless of how many steps have occured in the information game
People hide behind statements that fulfill the wants of everyone rather than just his or her needs

“Working consensus” established in one situation may differ from ____.
another setting