Society, the Basics, chapter 6 and 10.

Flashcard maker : Henry Smith
At birth, males and females are distinguished by ______, which are the genitals: organs used for reproduction.
primary sex characteristics
One norm found everywhere is the incest taboo, which refers to norms forbidding:
sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
Which of the following set the stage for the sexual revolution?
Kinsey’s published studies of sexuality
______ refers to a person’s preference in terms of sexual partners.
Sexual orientation
Sexual attraction to people of both sexes is called:
The weight of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is caused mostly by:
human biology, although society plays some role.
The term \”homophobia\” refers to fear of:
close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
The observation that police are more likely to arrest sex workers than their male clients is consistent with which theoretical analysis of sexuality?
Which of the following is TRUE with respect to early sexual activity in North America?
Observed differences in pregnancy rates between Sweden and the United States seems to be due to differences in access to contraceptive services.
What is the term for biological distinction between females and males?
Bodily development, apart form the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males is defined as
Secondary gender characteristics
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the term gender?
It refers to personal traits and patterns of behaviour that a culture attaches to being female or male.
What is the term for humans who have some combination of female and male genitalia?
intersexed people
Which of the following is TRUE regarding intersexed people?
Some cultures view intersexed people as having the full potential of both the female and the male.
______ feel they are \”trapped in a body of the wrong sex.\”
Which of the following is NOT true regarding sexual attitudes in Canada?
By the mid-1950s, all provinces had cleared laws against homosexuality and various \”unnatural\” acts from the books.
Which event set the state for the sexual revolution?
Kinsey’s publication of the first study of sexuality in the US.S in 1948
Why did Kinsey’s book encourage the sexual revolution?
The revelations in the books fostered a new openness toward sexuality.
Politically speaking, what was the primary purpose of those at the forefront of the sexual counterrevolution?
A return to \”family values,\” by which sexual freedom was to be replaced by sexual responsibility
Which of the following is ACCURATE, regarding public opinion about premarital sex?
Premarital sex is broadly accepted among young people.
In spite of portrayals in the mass media, research on frequency of sexual activity reveals that:
people in monogamous relationships have sexual relationship more often than singles.
Susan is sexually attracted to males. Her sexual orientation is
The fact that sexual orientation is not often clear-cut points to the importance of a third category:
The sexual orientation referred to as ______ refers to no sexual attraction to people of either sex.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding sexual orientation?
Cultural systems value all sexual orientations equally.
The observation that patterns of homosexuality differ greatly from one society to another supports the idea that
sexual orientation is a product of society.
If you argue that people come to have a sexual orientation because it is innate, which general position on how people come to have a sexual orientation would you be taking?
Sexual orientation is a product of biology.
In Canada, which of the following is TRUE regarding same-sex marriages?
Canadian have become increasingly supportive of gay \”equal\” marriage.
Which of the following statements regarding teenage pregnancy in Canada is FALSE?
Most agree that Canada’s national plan of action has been effective in reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies.
Which of the following statements about pornography in Canada is FALSE?
Critics of pornography focus their objections solely on moral grounds.
With which of the following would you agree if you were a supporter of sex education?
Its is unrealistic to expect that in a culture that celebrates sexuality, children will not become sexually active.
Elite sex workers – young, attractive, and well educated – are referred to as ______; while ______ are at the bottom of the sex-worker hierarchy.
call girls; streetwalkers
Which of the following statements about prostitution is TRUE?
Sex workers located in off-street \”escort agencies\” have safer work conditions than those working on the streets.
Which of the following statements about rape is FALSE?
Rape usually occurs between strangers.
Which of the following is NOT a common myth about rape?
Rape leaves both physical and psychological scars.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding sex on campus?
Most women are critical of the culture of \”hooking-up\” and express little satisfaction with these encounters.
______ argue that society must regulate sexual behaviour because sexuality is an important element of social life.
Which of the following is a latent function of prostitution?
it meets the sexual needs of people who do not have ready access to sex
Which of the following is a criticism of the structural-functional analysis of sexuality?
This approach pays little attention to the great diversity of sexual ideas and practices found within every society.
______ highlights how, as people interact, they construct everyday reality.
The changing importance of virginity over the last century in our society is a topic you would associate with:
Which of the following is a strength of the symbolic-interaction paradigm regarding sexuality?
It reveals the constructed character of familiar social patterns and thus bring about a better appreciation of the variety of sexual practices found around the world.
What is probably the most hotly contested social issue in Canada today?
If Susie, in a discussion of sexuality, continually points out how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and also helps to create them, on which theoretical approach is she relying?
______ refers to a growing body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in North American society.
Queer Theory
Which of the following is a criticism of the social-conflict paradigm’s view of sexuality?
This approach overlooks the fact that sexuality is not a power issue for everyone.
The chapter argues that gender is not a matter just of difference but also a matter of:
power, wealth, and privileges.
is observed everywhere in the world today in varying degrees.
What is the term for attitudes and activities that a society tends to link to women and men?
gender roles
What term refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
\”glass ceiling:
Most violence against women occurs:
in the home.
According to Talcott Parsons, gender
forms a complementary set of roles.
The following are goals of feminism EXCEPT for one. Which is it?
reducing sexual freedom
A feminist who seeks to eliminate gender itself is
a radical feminist.
The origin of the phrase, \”the rule of thumb\” is from:
the time in our history when men were legally permitted to beat their wives, as long as the stick was no wider than a thumb.
What is the term for the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male?
What is the term for the unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women?
gender stratification
What is TRUE about men and women?
There are no overall differences in intelligence between males and females.
You have been asked to coach a high school team that is competing province-wide for best school in overall intellectual ability. In general, your team would fare better if:
You choose an equal mix of males and females for your team.
Which of the following characteristics exemplifies the kibbutzim?
Gender is irrelevant to most of everyday life.
Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that:
gender is a variable creation of culture.
What is the form of social organization in which males dominate females?
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
What is the belief that one gender is innately superior to the other?
The idea that sexism is institutionalized in Canada:
means it is built into the operation of various social institutions.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the costs of sexism?
Patriarchy drives men to relentlessly seek control resulting in accidents and violence.
At about age ______, children begin to apply gender standards to themselves.
What is the term for attitudes and activities that a society links women and men?
gender roles
One implication of the research of Janet Lever and Carol Gilligan on gender differences in human development is that:
girls learn morality in terms of responsibility to others.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding gender and the mass media?
The characters of males and females in the media today are much the same.
Select the reason behind the changing character of the Canadian workforce since 1900.
the rising divorce rate
Approximately ______ percent of married couples in Canada depend on two incomes.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding women in the labour force?
Gender stratification in the workplace is difficult to see in today’s society.
Which of the following is TRUE about housework?
Men support women entering the workforce, although most resist taking on a more equal share of household duties.
What three factors account for most of the earning disparity between men and women?
type of work; family responsibilities; discrimination
The barrier that is invisible, but which prevents women from rising beyond middle management positions is referred to as:
the \”glass ceiling.\”
Which of the following was TRUE about gender and education in Canada by 1994?
Compared to men, more women received bachelor’s and first professional degrees.
Which of the following is TRUE about Canadian women university graduates in 1997?
Women earned a majority of master’s degrees.
Which country has the most women holding the most parliamentary seats?
Which of the following is TRUE of minority and Aboriginal women in Canada?
Aboriginal and minority women are doubly disadvantaged.
Sexual violence s fundamentally about:
What is the term for comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome?
sexual harassment
According to the text, sexual harassment:
happens to men and women.
Which of the following is TRUE about a structural-functional analysis of gender?
over many generations, the sex-based division of labour has been taken for granted.
Which theoretical approach argues that conventional ideas about gender create division and tension, with men seeking to protect their privileges as women challenge the status quo?
Which of the following is TRUE, in terms of the social-conflict perspective?
Capitalism intensifies males domination.
What is the term for the advocacy of social equality for the sexes, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism?
What variant of feminism accepts the basic organization of Canadian society, but seeks to expand the opportunities of women?
Liberal feminism
______ feminism claims patriarchy can be overcome only through elimination of gender itself.
Which of the following is TRUE of feminism?
Resistance to feminism is primarily directed at the social and radical types; there is widespread support of the principles that underlie liberal feminism.
Define and compare sex and gender; primary and secondary sex characteristics
Describe the influences of biology and culture on sexual orientation and the evidence in support of each side.
Describe the consequences of gender or sexual stereotyping for males and females.
Define homophobia, xenophobia, bisexuality, and sexual orientation?
What is sexism?, Give examples of sexism in Canada.
Define feminism. How is feminism different from sexism?
What is meant by the \”feminization of poverty\”?
Define patriarchy and matriarchy. What is the evidence on the inevitability of patriarchy?
Define gender stratification, and gender socialization an the factors involved to maintain it.
Describe the relationship between gender, gender roles, and social stratification in terms of labour force participation, occupations, income, wealth, housework, the \”second shift\”, education, politics and violence.
What is the glass ceiling, and why does it exist?
Define and explain sexual harassment using the sociological perspective and sociological theories.
Explain gender issues using the three theoretical perspectives: structural functionalism, social conflict and symbolic interaction.
Define feminism
identify the basic ideas and theories of feminism
Explain why there is resistance to feminism in Canada

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