Social Work Licensing exam prep

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Operational stages
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Sensorimotor stage – infants and toddlers Pre operational stage – preschool children Concrete operational stage – school age (logical problem solving strategies). Formal operational stage – adolescents
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Moral relativism
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Piaget’s theory of moral development. Individuals ages 10 years to adulthood are in this stage. At this point individuals begin to understand the meaning of and reasoning for rules.
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Social network mapping
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Shows all of the different systems that a person lives in and communicates with. It can be helpful to show how families operate with each other and within their community
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Contemplation
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The stage of change in which individuals finally admit that there is some sort of problem (depression or alcoholism). At this point, they think about whether or not to try to change, since it will be difficult
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Precontemplation
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First stage of change in which the client’s consciousness of the problem is raising
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Stages of change
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Precontemplation (not ready) Contemplation (getting ready) Preparation (ready) Action Maintenance
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Charles Levy
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Built the framework for classifying social work values based on four categories of core values. He argued that core values for the profession of social work should be derived from societal, organizational & institutional, professional and human service practice values
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Muriel Pumphrey
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Identified the importance of teaching ethics to students
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Interpersonal Therapy
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Designed to be short term and normally consists of 12 to 16 sessions. Originally developed to treat clients with major depression and it focuses on the \”here and now\” factors that interfere with the clients social relationships
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Reflection
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A technique used when the social worker repeats back to the client what he or she just said. It is often a useful tool and can help make sure the social worker understands what the client has said.
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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
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Self-actualization – achieving one’s full potential, including creative activities. Esteem needs – prestige and feeling of accomplishment. Belongingness and love needs – intimate relationships, friends. Safety needs – security, safety. Physiological needs – food, water, warmth, rest.
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Social policy analysis
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A process in which one identifies and evaluates policies that are established to solve social issues. The six steps of social policy analysis are 1) verify, define and detail the problem 2) establish evaluation criteria 3) identify alternative policies 4) evaluate alternative policies 5) distinguish between alternative policies and 6) monitor the implemented policy.
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Normative ethics
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Attempts to apply ethical theories and principles to actual ethical dilemmas. Focus on dealing with specific situations and applying ethics to those situations. It is also the branch of ethics that focuses on questions regarding how individuals should live or act.
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Functional behavioral assessment
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Generally assesses the following elements of an individual ‘s behavior; identifying information, targeting behavior; antecedent to the behavior, concurrent event that happened while the behavior occurred, consequences of the behavior, observation of the behavior, interviews with others about the behavior, student records that include the student’s attendance, academic performance and health assessments, influencing factors that could have caused the behavior and hypothesis of behavior.
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Social planning
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People-centered NOT place-centered. SW listens to what people need. Some people’s needs either don’t exist in their community of need to be changed. Then everyone involved will collaborate, without any one person being the leader, in order to come up with a plan, in any and all types of communities. Anybody is welcome to participate.
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Systems theory
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Utilized both in indirect and direct practice. Shows that multiple systems can and need to work together. Ex. Direct system (an individual) might need clothes, which the indirect system (an organization that provides clothing) can provide.
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Solution-focused therapy
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The social work practice model that uses a \”miracle\” question to help a client envision what type of future he/she wants to obtain. This social work practice modal starts with obtaining a solution for the client and then helps the client develop steps that will solve the problem
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Paradigm
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Entire constellation of beliefs, value, techniques, and so on, shared by the members of a given community. Paradigms are essentially a driving force that helps explain life and create rules for a group of people.
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Behavioral approach
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Important that the SW establish a good rapport with clients so that they feel they can trust him. It is also important to not punish any behavior in the initial stages of the relationships.
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Eclectic approach
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The use of different theories with different clients based on what she feels is most appropriate rather than using only one theory as a \”one size fits all\” approach
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Values clarification
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The process in which a person works to become clear about their personal values in order to facilitate his or her understanding of how their values influence their goals and decisions that affect their social work practice
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Avolition
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A symptom of various forms of psychotherapy, is the decrease in the motivation to initiate and perform self-directed purposeful activities. Ex. Hobbies, going to work or school, engaging in social activities.
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Agnosia
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In neurocognitive disorders; inability to recognize objects or people; inability to process sensory information/everyday objects
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Mary Richmond
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Wrote the book \”social diagnosis\”. First to develop social casework and focus on the requirements for practice with individuals and families. Introduced literature that described social work practice.
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Schizophrenia
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Affect, associations, ambivalence and autism are the four A’s of schizophrenia. Eugen Bleuler assigned the four A’s which he felt were the fundamental aspects of schizophrenia.
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Seven-stage crisis intervention model
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Developed by Albert R. Roberts. Seven steps 1) assess the lethality of the crisis 2) establish a rapport with the client 3) identify problems by defining the crisis 4) deal with the clients feelings 5) explore coping alternatives 6)develop an action plan to restore function and 7) follow up with the client
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Statistical research errors
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Type 1 error – occurs when one detects an effect that was not actually presented (no difference). Type II error – failure to reject a null hypotheses that is false. Failure to detect an effect that is present (there is a difference). Type III error – asking the wrong question and using the wrong hypothesis (rare). *right answer, wrong question *

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