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Social Psychology Exam 1 (Chapters 1-4)

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social psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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hindsight bias
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The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
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correlational research
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research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
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experimental research
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studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
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independent variable
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the experimental factor that IS MANIPULATED; the variable whose effect is being studied
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dependent variable
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the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
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experimental realism
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degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
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mundane realism
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the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world
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self fulfilling belief
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a belief that leads to its own fulfillment ex) husband expects hostility in his wife, he might treat her negatively, ultimately making her hostile; fulfilled husbands expectations
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illusion of transparency
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the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
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self concept
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all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, \”Who am I?\”
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dual attitudes
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differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
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self perception theory
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theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors
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Are you religious study
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people took survey asked if they went to church regularly. then asked if the were religious, those who said yes to regularly said yes to religious
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self efficacy
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One’s belief in his or her own ability.
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effective forecasting
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efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events
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excess choice
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Too many choices leads to less satisfaction Making choices is tiring Choices enhance regret
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learned helplessness
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condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
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self-esteem
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one’s feelings of high or low self-worth
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Higgin’s 3 components of self-esteem
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actual self, ought to be self, ideal self
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Possible selves
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images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
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false consensus
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an outcome where some members of a group say they support the unanimous decision even though they do not
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self-monitoring
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personality trait that assesses the extent to which people’s behavior reflects their true feelings and attitudes
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misinformation effect
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creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place
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belief perserverance
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Clinging to ones invalid conceptions even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
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rosy retrospective
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images of positive events stick with us while less joyous moments pass
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counterfactual thinking
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imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t.
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representativeness heuristic
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judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
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principle of aggregation
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effects of an attitude become more apparent when we look at a persons aggregate or average behavior instead of isolated acts
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overjustification effect
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the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
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ABC’s of attitudes
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Affect (how you feel about the object) Behavior (how you act, actions towards an object), Cognition (how you think about an object)
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self-affirmation theory
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A theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat, after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people’s self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain