Social Psychology Chapters 1-4 Test Questions

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Social Psychology
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the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
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Social Thinking
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how we perceive ourselves and others, what we believe, judgments we make, and our attitudes
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Social Influence
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culture, pressures to conform, persuasion, and groups of people
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Social Relations
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prejudice, aggression, attraction and intimacy, and helping
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Social Neuroscience
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an interdisciplinary field that explores the neural bases of social and emotional processes and behaviors and how these processes and behaviors affect our brain and biology
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Culture
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the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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Social Representations
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a society’s widely held ideas and values, including assumptions and cultural ideologies; our social representations help us make sense of our world
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Hindsight Bias
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the tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out; also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
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Theory
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an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events; a good theory effectively summarizes many observations and makes clear predictions
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Hypothesis
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a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
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Field Research
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research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
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Correlational Research
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the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
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Experimental Research
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studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others
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Independent Variable
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the factor in an experiment that is being manipulated
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Dependent Variable
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the factor in an experiment that is being measured
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Random Sample
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survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion
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Variables that could influence survey answers?
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unrepresentative samples, order of questions, response options, wording of questions, and framing
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Framing
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the way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people’s decisions and expressed opinions
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Random Assignment
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the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition; helps us infer cause and effect
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Mundane Realism
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degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
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Experimental Realism
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degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
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Deception
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in research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods and purposes
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Demand Characteristics
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cues in an experiment that tell the participants what behavior is expected
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Informed Consent
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an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
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Debriefing
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in social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants; debriefing usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feelings
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Spotlight Effect
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the belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are
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Illusion of Transparency
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the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
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Self Concept
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what we know and believe about ourselves
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Schema
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a mental template by which we organize our worlds
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Self-Schema
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beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
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Possible Selves
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images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
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Influences on the self?
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The roles we play, the social identities we form, the comparisons we make with others, how other people judge us, & the surrounding culture
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Social Comparison
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evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
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Individualism
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the concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
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Independent Self
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construing one’s identity as an autonomous self
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Collectivism
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giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly
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Interdependent Self
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construing one’s identity in relation to others
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Planning Fallacy
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the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task
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Impact Bias
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overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
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Psychological Immune System
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includes strategies for rationalizing, discounting, forgiving, and limiting emotional trauma
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Immune Neglect
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the human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the “psychological immune system” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
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Dual Attitude System
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differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object; verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion, while implicit attitudes change slowly with practice that forms new habit
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Self-Esteem
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the overall sense of self-worth we use to appraise our traits and abilities
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Terror Management Theory
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proposes that people exhibit self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality
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Self-Efficacy
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a sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one’s sense of self-worth; a sharpshooter in the military might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem
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Locus of Control
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the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
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Learned Helplessness
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the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
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Self-Serving Bias
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the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
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Self-Serving Attributions
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a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors
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Defensive Pessimism
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the adaptive value of anticipating problems an harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action
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False Consensus Effect
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the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
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False Uniqueness Effect
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the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors
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Group-Serving Bias
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explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group)
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Self-Handicapping
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protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure
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Self-Presentation
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the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one’s ideas
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Self-Monitoring
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being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one’s performance to create the desired impression
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Priming
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activating particular associations in memory
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Embodied Cognition
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the mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments
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Spontaneous Trait Transference
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when we say something good or bad about another, people spontaneously tend to associate that trait with us.
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Belief Perseverance
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persistence of one’s initial conceptions, such as when the basis for one’s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives
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Misinformation Effect
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incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
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Controlled Processing
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“explicit” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
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Automatic Processing
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“implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness; roughly corresponds to “intuition”
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Emotional Reactions
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often nearly instantaneous reactions that happen before there is time for deliberate thinking
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Overconfidence Phenomenon
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the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs
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Confirmation Bias
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a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
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Heuristic
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a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments
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Representativeness Heuristic
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the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group is representing a particular member
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Availability Heuristic
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a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory; if instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace
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Counterfactual Thinking
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imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t
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Illusionary Correlation
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perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
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Illusion of Control
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perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are
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Regression Toward the Average
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the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one’s average
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Misattribution
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mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
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Attribution Theory
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the theory of how people explain others’ behavior—for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations
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Dispositional Attribution
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attributing behavior to the person’s disposition and traits
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Situational Attribution
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attributing behavior to the environment
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Spontaneous Trait Inference
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an effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior
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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
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a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
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Behavioral Confirmation
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a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
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Attitude
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a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often rooted in one’s beliefs, and exhibited in one’s feelings and intended behavior)
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Implicit Association Test (IAT)
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a computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes; the test uses reaction times to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words; easier pairings (and faster responses) are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations
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Role
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a set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave
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Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
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Lowball Technique
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a tactic for getting people to agree to something; people who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante; people who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it
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Cognitive Dissonance
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tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions; for example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another
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Selective Exposure
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the tendency to seek information and media that agree with one’s views and to avoid dissonant information
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Insufficient Justification
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reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior when external justification is “insufficient”
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Self-Perception Theory
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the theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us—by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs
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Facial Feedback Effect
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the tendency of facial expressions to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness
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Over-Justification Effect
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the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
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Self-Affirmation Theory
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a theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self; threaten people’s self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain

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