Social Psychology Chapters 1-3 – Flashcards

question
Social Psychology
answer
The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question
Social Neuroscience
answer
An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors.
question
Culture
answer
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
question
Social Representations
answer
Social shared beliefs- widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of the world.
question
Hindsight bias
answer
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
question
Theory
answer
An Integrated set of principles that explain and predict obserced events.
question
Hypothesis
answer
A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events.
question
Field Research
answer
Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.
question
Correlational Research
answer
The study of the naturally occuring relationships amoung variables.
question
Experimental research
answer
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant).
question
Random Sample
answer
Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
question
Framing
answer
The way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions.
question
Independent Variable
answer
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates.
question
Dependent Variable
answer
The variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable.
question
Random Assignment
answer
The process assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
question
Mundance realism
answer
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.
question
Experimental realism
answer
Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants.
question
Deception
answer
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes.
question
Demand Characteristics
answer
Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected.
question
Informed Consent
answer
An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
question
Debreifing
answer
In social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any deception and often requires participants regarding their understandings and feelings.
question
Spotlight Effect
answer
The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are.
question
Illustion of transparency
answer
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
question
Self- concept
answer
A person's ansers to the question, " Who am I?"
question
Self-schema
answer
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
question
Possible selves
answer
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
question
Social Comparison
answer
Evalutating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
question
Individualism
answer
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
question
Collectivism
answer
Giving priority to the goals of one's groups and definging one's identity accordingly.
question
interdepedent self
answer
Constructing one's identity in relation to others.
question
Planning Fallacy
answer
The tendency to under estimate how long it will take to complete a task.
question
Impact Bias
answer
Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
question
Immune neglect
answer
The human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emtional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
question
dual attitudes
answer
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change the education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
question
Self-esteem
answer
A person's overall self- evaluation or sense of self-worth.
question
Self-efficacy
answer
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem.
question
Locus of control
answer
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
question
Learned Helplessness
answer
The sense of hepelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal percieves no control over repeated bad events.
question
Self-serving bias
answer
The tendency to percieve oneself favorably.
question
Self-serving attributions
answer
A form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
question
Defense pessimism
answer
The adaptive value of anticipating problems and hardnessing one's anxiety to motivate effectice action.
question
False consensus effect
answer
Th tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
question
False uniqueness effect
answer
The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desiable or successful behaviors.
question
Group-serving bias
answer
Explaning away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
question
Self-handicapping
answer
Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
question
Self- presentation
answer
The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impresson that corresponds to one's ideals.
question
Self-monitoring
answer
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
question
Priming
answer
Activating particular associations in memory.
question
Belief perserverance
answer
Persistence of one's initial conceptions, as when the basis for ones belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives.
question
Misinformation effect
answer
Incorporating " misinformation" into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and recieving misleading information.
question
Controlled processing
answer
"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflecting and cconscious.
question
Automatic processing
answer
"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to "intuition."
question
Overconfidence
answer
The tendencu to be more confidnet that correct-- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs.
question
Confirmation bias
answer
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
question
Heuristic
answer
A thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments.
question
Representativeness
answer
The tendency to presume, sometimes despide contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member.
question
Availability heuristic
answer
A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind we persume it to be commonplace.
question
Countefactual thinking
answer
Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't.
question
Illusory correlation
answer
Perception of a relationship where none exisits, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exisits.
question
Illusion of control
answer
Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are.
question
regression toward the average
answer
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average.
question
Misattribution
answer
Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source.
question
Attribution theory
answer
The theory of how people explain others' behavior- for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations.
question
Dispositional attribution
answer
Attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits.
question
Situational attribution
answer
Attributing behavior to the environment.
question
Spontaneous trait inference
answer
An effortless, automatic interference of a trait after exposure to someone's behavior.
question
Fundamental attribution error
answer
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior.
question
Self- awareness
answer
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispostions.
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
question
Behavioral confimation
answer
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expecations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
question
Attitude
answer
A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often rooted in one's beliefs, and exhibited in one's feelings and intended behavior).
question
Role
answer
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
question
Foot- in- the- door phenomenon
answer
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger request.
question
Low-ball technique
answer
a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
question
cognitive dissonance
answer
Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another.
question
Insufficient justification
answer
Reduction of dissonance by interanllu justifying one's behavior when external justification is "insufficient."
question
Self-perception theory
answer
The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
question
Overjustification effect
answer
The effect of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.
question
Self-Affirmation theory
answer
A theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat, after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people's self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain.
question
Internal Attribution
answer
Blaming a factor, agent, or force within one's control for causing an event.
question
External Attribution
answer
Blaming an outside factor as the cause of an event.
question
Solomon Ash.
answer
He became famous in the 1950s, following experiments which showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect.
question
Stanly Milgram
answer
Was influenced by the events of the Nazi Holocaust to carry out an experiment that would demonstrate the relationship between obedience and authority. Prior to the obedience experiment, He conducted the small-world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) as part of his dissertation while at Harvard.
question
William McDougal
answer
He was particularly important in the development of the theory of instinct and of social psychology in the English-speaking world.
question
Lee Ross
answer
An influential social psychologist who has studied attribution theory, attributional biases, decision making and conflict resolution. He is known for his investigations of the fundamental attribution error, and for identifications and analyses of such psychological phenomena as attitude polarization, reactive devaluation, belief perseverance, the false consensus effect, naive realism, and the hostile media effect.
question
Fritz Heider
answer
he published The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, which expanded upon his creation of balance theory and marked the starting point of attribution theory.
question
Leon Festinger
answer
Responsible for the development of the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Social comparison theory, and the discovery of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties as well as other contributions to the study of social networks. He was also responsible for Social Comparison Theory, which examines how people evaluate their own opinions and desires by comparing themselves with others, and how groups exert pressures on individuals to conform with group norms and goals
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question
Social Psychology
answer
The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question
Social Neuroscience
answer
An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors.
question
Culture
answer
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
question
Social Representations
answer
Social shared beliefs- widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of the world.
question
Hindsight bias
answer
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
question
Theory
answer
An Integrated set of principles that explain and predict obserced events.
question
Hypothesis
answer
A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events.
question
Field Research
answer
Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.
question
Correlational Research
answer
The study of the naturally occuring relationships amoung variables.
question
Experimental research
answer
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant).
question
Random Sample
answer
Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
question
Framing
answer
The way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions.
question
Independent Variable
answer
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates.
question
Dependent Variable
answer
The variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable.
question
Random Assignment
answer
The process assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
question
Mundance realism
answer
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.
question
Experimental realism
answer
Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants.
question
Deception
answer
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes.
question
Demand Characteristics
answer
Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected.
question
Informed Consent
answer
An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
question
Debreifing
answer
In social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any deception and often requires participants regarding their understandings and feelings.
question
Spotlight Effect
answer
The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are.
question
Illustion of transparency
answer
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
question
Self- concept
answer
A person's ansers to the question, " Who am I?"
question
Self-schema
answer
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
question
Possible selves
answer
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
question
Social Comparison
answer
Evalutating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
question
Individualism
answer
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
question
Collectivism
answer
Giving priority to the goals of one's groups and definging one's identity accordingly.
question
interdepedent self
answer
Constructing one's identity in relation to others.
question
Planning Fallacy
answer
The tendency to under estimate how long it will take to complete a task.
question
Impact Bias
answer
Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
question
Immune neglect
answer
The human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emtional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
question
dual attitudes
answer
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change the education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
question
Self-esteem
answer
A person's overall self- evaluation or sense of self-worth.
question
Self-efficacy
answer
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem.
question
Locus of control
answer
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
question
Learned Helplessness
answer
The sense of hepelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal percieves no control over repeated bad events.
question
Self-serving bias
answer
The tendency to percieve oneself favorably.
question
Self-serving attributions
answer
A form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
question
Defense pessimism
answer
The adaptive value of anticipating problems and hardnessing one's anxiety to motivate effectice action.
question
False consensus effect
answer
Th tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
question
False uniqueness effect
answer
The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desiable or successful behaviors.
question
Group-serving bias
answer
Explaning away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
question
Self-handicapping
answer
Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
question
Self- presentation
answer
The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impresson that corresponds to one's ideals.
question
Self-monitoring
answer
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
question
Priming
answer
Activating particular associations in memory.
question
Belief perserverance
answer
Persistence of one's initial conceptions, as when the basis for ones belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives.
question
Misinformation effect
answer
Incorporating " misinformation" into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and recieving misleading information.
question
Controlled processing
answer
"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflecting and cconscious.
question
Automatic processing
answer
"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to "intuition."
question
Overconfidence
answer
The tendencu to be more confidnet that correct-- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs.
question
Confirmation bias
answer
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
question
Heuristic
answer
A thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments.
question
Representativeness
answer
The tendency to presume, sometimes despide contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member.
question
Availability heuristic
answer
A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind we persume it to be commonplace.
question
Countefactual thinking
answer
Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't.
question
Illusory correlation
answer
Perception of a relationship where none exisits, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exisits.
question
Illusion of control
answer
Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are.
question
regression toward the average
answer
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average.
question
Misattribution
answer
Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source.
question
Attribution theory
answer
The theory of how people explain others' behavior- for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations.
question
Dispositional attribution
answer
Attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits.
question
Situational attribution
answer
Attributing behavior to the environment.
question
Spontaneous trait inference
answer
An effortless, automatic interference of a trait after exposure to someone's behavior.
question
Fundamental attribution error
answer
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior.
question
Self- awareness
answer
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispostions.
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
question
Behavioral confimation
answer
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expecations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
question
Attitude
answer
A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often rooted in one's beliefs, and exhibited in one's feelings and intended behavior).
question
Role
answer
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
question
Foot- in- the- door phenomenon
answer
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger request.
question
Low-ball technique
answer
a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
question
cognitive dissonance
answer
Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another.
question
Insufficient justification
answer
Reduction of dissonance by interanllu justifying one's behavior when external justification is "insufficient."
question
Self-perception theory
answer
The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
question
Overjustification effect
answer
The effect of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.
question
Self-Affirmation theory
answer
A theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat, after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people's self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain.
question
Internal Attribution
answer
Blaming a factor, agent, or force within one's control for causing an event.
question
External Attribution
answer
Blaming an outside factor as the cause of an event.
question
Solomon Ash.
answer
He became famous in the 1950s, following experiments which showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect.
question
Stanly Milgram
answer
Was influenced by the events of the Nazi Holocaust to carry out an experiment that would demonstrate the relationship between obedience and authority. Prior to the obedience experiment, He conducted the small-world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) as part of his dissertation while at Harvard.
question
William McDougal
answer
He was particularly important in the development of the theory of instinct and of social psychology in the English-speaking world.
question
Lee Ross
answer
An influential social psychologist who has studied attribution theory, attributional biases, decision making and conflict resolution. He is known for his investigations of the fundamental attribution error, and for identifications and analyses of such psychological phenomena as attitude polarization, reactive devaluation, belief perseverance, the false consensus effect, naive realism, and the hostile media effect.
question
Fritz Heider
answer
he published The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, which expanded upon his creation of balance theory and marked the starting point of attribution theory.
question
Leon Festinger
answer
Responsible for the development of the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Social comparison theory, and the discovery of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties as well as other contributions to the study of social networks. He was also responsible for Social Comparison Theory, which examines how people evaluate their own opinions and desires by comparing themselves with others, and how groups exert pressures on individuals to conform with group norms and goals