Please enter something

Social Psychology Chapters 1-3

question

Social Psychology
answer

The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question

Social Neuroscience
answer

An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors.
question

Culture
answer

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
question

Social Representations
answer

Social shared beliefs- widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of the world.
question

Hindsight bias
answer

The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
question

Theory
answer

An Integrated set of principles that explain and predict obserced events.
question

Hypothesis
answer

A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events.
question

Field Research
answer

Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.
question

Correlational Research
answer

The study of the naturally occuring relationships amoung variables.
question

Experimental research
answer

Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant).
question

Random Sample
answer

Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
question

Framing
answer

The way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people’s decisions and expressed opinions.
question

Independent Variable
answer

The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates.
question

Dependent Variable
answer

The variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable.
question

Random Assignment
answer

The process assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
question

Mundance realism
answer

Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.
question

Experimental realism
answer

Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants.
question

Deception
answer

In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods and purposes.
question

Demand Characteristics
answer

Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected.
question

Informed Consent
answer

An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
question

Debreifing
answer

In social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any deception and often requires participants regarding their understandings and feelings.
question

Spotlight Effect
answer

The belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are.
question

Illustion of transparency
answer

The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
question

Self- concept
answer

A person’s ansers to the question, ” Who am I?”
question

Self-schema
answer

Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
question

Possible selves
answer

Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
question

Social Comparison
answer

Evalutating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
question

Individualism
answer

The concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
question

Collectivism
answer

Giving priority to the goals of one’s groups and definging one’s identity accordingly.
question

interdepedent self
answer

Constructing one’s identity in relation to others.
question

Planning Fallacy
answer

The tendency to under estimate how long it will take to complete a task.
question

Impact Bias
answer

Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
question

Immune neglect
answer

The human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the “psychological immune system,” which enables emtional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
question

dual attitudes
answer

Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change the education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
question

Self-esteem
answer

A person’s overall self- evaluation or sense of self-worth.
question

Self-efficacy
answer

A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one’s sense of self worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem.
question

Locus of control
answer

The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
question

Learned Helplessness
answer

The sense of hepelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal percieves no control over repeated bad events.
question

Self-serving bias
answer

The tendency to percieve oneself favorably.
question

Self-serving attributions
answer

A form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
question

Defense pessimism
answer

The adaptive value of anticipating problems and hardnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effectice action.
question

False consensus effect
answer

Th tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
question

False uniqueness effect
answer

The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desiable or successful behaviors.
question

Group-serving bias
answer

Explaning away outgroup members’ positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group).
question

Self-handicapping
answer

Protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
question

Self- presentation
answer

The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impresson that corresponds to one’s ideals.
question

Self-monitoring
answer

Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one’s performance to create the desired impression.
question

Priming
answer

Activating particular associations in memory.
question

Belief perserverance
answer

Persistence of one’s initial conceptions, as when the basis for ones belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives.
question

Misinformation effect
answer

Incorporating ” misinformation” into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and recieving misleading information.
question

Controlled processing
answer

“Explicit” thinking that is deliberate, reflecting and cconscious.
question

Automatic processing
answer

“Implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to “intuition.”
question

Overconfidence
answer

The tendencu to be more confidnet that correct– to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs.
question

Confirmation bias
answer

A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
question

Heuristic
answer

A thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments.
question

Representativeness
answer

The tendency to presume, sometimes despide contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member.
question

Availability heuristic
answer

A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind we persume it to be commonplace.
question

Countefactual thinking
answer

Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t.
question

Illusory correlation
answer

Perception of a relationship where none exisits, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exisits.
question

Illusion of control
answer

Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are.
question

regression toward the average
answer

The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one’s average.
question

Misattribution
answer

Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source.
question

Attribution theory
answer

The theory of how people explain others’ behavior- for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations.
question

Dispositional attribution
answer

Attributing behavior to the person’s disposition and traits.
question

Situational attribution
answer

Attributing behavior to the environment.
question

Spontaneous trait inference
answer

An effortless, automatic interference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior.
question

Fundamental attribution error
answer

The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior.
question

Self- awareness
answer

A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispostions.
question

self-fulfilling prophecy
answer

A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
question

Behavioral confimation
answer

A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expecations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
question

Attitude
answer

A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often rooted in one’s beliefs, and exhibited in one’s feelings and intended behavior).
question

Role
answer

A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
question

Foot- in- the- door phenomenon
answer

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger request.
question

Low-ball technique
answer

a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
question

cognitive dissonance
answer

Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another.
question

Insufficient justification
answer

Reduction of dissonance by interanllu justifying one’s behavior when external justification is “insufficient.”
question

Self-perception theory
answer

The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
question

Overjustification effect
answer

The effect of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.
question

Self-Affirmation theory
answer

A theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat, after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people’s self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain.
question

Internal Attribution
answer

Blaming a factor, agent, or force within one’s control for causing an event.
question

External Attribution
answer

Blaming an outside factor as the cause of an event.
question

Solomon Ash.
answer

He became famous in the 1950s, following experiments which showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect.
question

Stanly Milgram
answer

Was influenced by the events of the Nazi Holocaust to carry out an experiment that would demonstrate the relationship between obedience and authority. Prior to the obedience experiment, He conducted the small-world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) as part of his dissertation while at Harvard.
question

William McDougal
answer

He was particularly important in the development of the theory of instinct and of social psychology in the English-speaking world.
question

Lee Ross
answer

An influential social psychologist who has studied attribution theory, attributional biases, decision making and conflict resolution. He is known for his investigations of the fundamental attribution error, and for identifications and analyses of such psychological phenomena as attitude polarization, reactive devaluation, belief perseverance, the false consensus effect, naive realism, and the hostile media effect.
question

Fritz Heider
answer

he published The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, which expanded upon his creation of balance theory and marked the starting point of attribution theory.
question

Leon Festinger
answer

Responsible for the development of the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Social comparison theory, and the discovery of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties as well as other contributions to the study of social networks. He was also responsible for Social Comparison Theory, which examines how people evaluate their own opinions and desires by comparing themselves with others, and how groups exert pressures on individuals to conform with group norms and goals