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Social Psychology Chapter 9: Group Processes

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Group
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3+ people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs & goals cause them to influence each other
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Social Roles
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Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
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Group Cohesiveness
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Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
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Social Facilitation
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Tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
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Social Loafing
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Tendency for people to relax when in the presence of others and the individual performance cannot be evaluated, such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks
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Deindividualization
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Loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified (such as when they are in a crowd)
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Process Loss
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Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
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Transactive Memory
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Combined memory of 2 people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual
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Groupthink
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Kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a real manner
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Group Polarization
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Tendency for groups to make decisions more extreme than initial inclinations of members
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Great Person Theory
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Idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader regardless of the situation
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Transactional Leaders
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Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
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Transformatiional Leaders
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Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
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Contingency Theory of Leadership
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Idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over group
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Task-Oriented Leader
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Leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers’ feelings and relationships
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Relationship-Oriented Leader
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Leader concerned primarily with workers’ feelings and relationships
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Social Dilemma
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Conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
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Tit-for-Tat Strategy
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Means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively/competitively) on the previous trial
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Public Goods Dilemma
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Social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
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Commons Dilemma
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Social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of gods that will replenish itself if uses in moderation but will disappear if overused
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Negotiation
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Form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree.
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Integrative Solution
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Solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests; each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side.