Social Psychology Chapter 8-9

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Chapter 8
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Collective
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People engaged in common activities but having minimal direct interaction.
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Group
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Two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions, membership in the same social category, or common fate.
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Social facilitation
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A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
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Mere presence theory
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The proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects.
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Social loafing
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A group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled.
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Ingham rope-pulling study
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Participants were led to think that they were pulling with a bunch of other participants. In another condition , the participants were informed that they were pulling alone (which, in fact, they were). The researcher told the participants to pull as hard as they could. Ingham and colleagues were able to measure exactly how hard each individual participant pulled, and they observed that the participants pulled almost 20 percent harder when they though they were pulling alone than when they though they were pulling with others.
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Factors that diminish social loafing
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Social loafing is less likely to occur when one of the following conditions is present: 1. People believe that their own performance can be identified and thus evaluated, by themselves or others. 2. The task is important or meaningful to those performing it. 3. People believe that their own efforts are necessary for a successful outcome. 4. The group expects to be punished for poor performance. 5. The group is small. 6. The group is cohesive- that is, membership in the group is valuable and important to the members, and the individuals like each other.
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Collective effort model
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The theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
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Social compensation
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If the outcome is important to individual members of the group, and if they believe that they can help achieve the desired outcome, then these individuals are likely to engage in social compensation, specifically, by increasing their efforts on collective tasks to try to compensate for the anticipated social loafing or poor performance of other group members.
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Sucker effect
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If the outcome is not personally important to individual members, if they believe that their contribution won’t affect the outcome very much, or if they feel they are unable to compensate for the anticipated social loafing of other member, then they are likely to exert less effort.
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Deindividuation
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The loss of a person’s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior.
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Why people join groups
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1. Innate need to belong to groups 2. Desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life. 3. In order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. 4. Social status and identity that they offer 5. They like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them.
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Group development stages
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Forming: members orient themselves, are polite and explanatory Storming: members try to influence group and its direction… can lead to conflict, hostility, and excitement Norming: reconcile conflicts and develop common purpose and norms Performing: members perform their own tasks to achieve goals Adjourning: members disengage when benefits no longer outweigh costs
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Components of groups (roles, norms, cohesiveness)
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1. Roles: formal or informal; instrumental (helps achieve tasks) or expressive (provides emotional support). 2. Norms: rules of conduct; formal or informal. 3. Cohesiveness: affected by commitment to task, attraction to members, group pride, number of interactions, threats from inside or out.
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Group polarization
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The exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members.
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Groupthink
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A group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
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Contributing factors of groupthink
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1. Highly cohesive groups (disagreeing gets you shunned) 2. Group structure (members are similar, isolated, strong leader, lack decision-making procedures) 3. Stressful situations (time, high-stakes)
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Effects of cohesiveness
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If the norms are positive and consistent with an organization’s goals, then high cohesiveness should improve performance. If a group has established negative, counterproductive, norms, then high cohesiveness should lead to poor group performance. If the group is cohesive, you don’t want to be the one that disagrees with everyone. If your groups is cohesive and close, then members might feel more comfortable sharing their deviant opinions. There might also be more respect in the group, so the others are more likely to listen.
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How to avoid the negative aspects of groupthink
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1. To avoid isolation, groups should consult widely with outsiders. 2. To reduce conformity pressures, leaders should explicitly encourage criticism and not take a strong stand early in the group discussion. 3. To establish a strong norm of critical review, subgroups should separately discuss the same issue, a member should be assigned to play devil’s advocate and question all decisions and ideas, and a \”second chance\” meeting should be held to reconsider the group decision before taking action.
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Additive tasks
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Task where the product is the sum of all members’ contributions. Group total is more than a person could come up with alone. Examples: giving to charity, cheering in a crowd
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Conjunctive tasks
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Task where the product determined by individual with poorest performance. Group total worse than a person could do alone. Example: mountain climbing teams
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Disjunctive tasks
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Task where the product is potentially determined by individual with best performance. Group total potentially better than a person could do alone – the more people, the better the chance of a \”breakthrough.\” Example: problem solving
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Process loss
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The reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
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Brainstorming (most effective forms)
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A number of people brainstorming individually produce more and higher-quality ideas than people brainstorming together.
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Entrapment
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The condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
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Social dilemma
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A situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone.
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Prisoner’s dilemma
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A type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party; typically designed in such a way that competitive moves are more beneficial to either side, but if both sides make competitive moves, they are both worse off then if they both cooperated.
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Tit-for-tat
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A reciprocal strategy in which cooperation by one elicits cooperation by the other, while competition by one provokes competition by the other.
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Resource dilemmas
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Social dilemmas concerning how two or more people share a limited resource.
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GRIT- Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction
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A strategy for unilateral, persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties.
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Integrative agreement
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A negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources.
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Chapter 9
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Need for affiliation
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The desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships.
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Link between fear and affiliation
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Stanley Schachter theorized that external threat triggers fear and motivates us to affiliate- particularly with others who face a similar threat.
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Schachter shock study
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In a laboratory experiment that demonstrated the link between fear and affiliation, Schachter found that people who were expecting to receive painful electric shocks chose to wait with other nervous participants rather than alone.
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Causes of shyness
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1. Inborn personality trait 2. Learned reaction to failed interactions with others
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Qualities of shy people
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1. Evaluate themselves negatively 2. Expect to fail in social encounters and blame themselves when they do 3. Conform out of fear of rejection 4. Go into self-imposed isolation
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Causes and susceptible age groups of loneliness
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18-30 year olds Loneliness occurs at times of transition, which occurs most at these ages.
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Predictors of relationships (proximity and exposure)
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Proximity – people who are in the same place at the same time Exposure – the more people see something, the more they like it
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Four studies showing power of physical attractiveness
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1. Teachers given info and pic of students, rated attractive kids as smarter and more likely to do well when all other info was the same. 2. Attractive people able to get more petition signatures on college campus. 3. Judges set lower bail and smaller fines for attractive people. 4. Attractive people make more money (across US and Canada) than comparable less-attractive others.
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What-is-beautiful-is-good stereotype
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The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics.
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Attractiveness and insecurity
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1. Often can’t tell if positive feedback is the result of their work or just their looks 2. Feel pressure to maintain appearance, which can lead to detrimental behavior
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Influencers of attraction (similarity, liking, hard to get)
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1. Similarity – we are more likely to be attracted to those demographically similar to us as well as those who hold similar attitudes. 2. Liking – We prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced. Balance exists when there’s reciprocity: a mutual exchange between what we give and receive – for example, liking those who like us 3. Being hard to get – We actually prefer people who are moderately selective more than those who are non selective or too selective. Wanting what we think we can’t or shouldn’t have
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Evolutionary roots of mate selection
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Women: They are biologically limited in the number of offspring they can produce. More likely to seek out a mate who is able and willing to provide for that offspring. More threatened by emotional infidelity Prefer older men Men: To ensure the offspring is theirs. More threatened by sexual infidelity Also, seek out best chance at reproduction. Seek youth and signs of fertility and health
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Social exchange theory
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A perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others.
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Investment
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1. Something a person puts into a relationship that they can’t recover 2. Higher investment equals higher likelihood of staying in a relationship
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Equity theory
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The theory that people are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners.
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Exchange relationships
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A relationship in which the participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions.
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communal relationships
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A relationship in which the participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each other’s needs.
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Triangular theory of love
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A theory proposing that love has three basic components- intimacy, passion, and commitment- which can be combined to produce eight subtypes.
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Passionate love
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Romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection.
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Companionate love
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A secure, trusting, stable partnership.
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Excitation transfer
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The process whereby arousal caused by one stimulus is added to arousal from a second stimulus and the combined arousal is attributed to the second stimulus.
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Self-disclosure
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Revelations about the self that a person makes to others.
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Jealousy: triggers and effects
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The reaction to a perceived threat to a relationship. 1. Relationship is new 2. Person is dependent on relationship 3. Person is insecure 4. Person feels inequitably treated by partner
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Kurdek’s longitudinal marriage study
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Showed a decrease in ratings of marital quality over 10 years. Sharp periods of decline found in 1st and 8th years.
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Negative affect reciprocity
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A tit-for-tat cycle of expression of negative feelings, verbal and nonverbal.
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Reducing conflict in relationships
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1. Increase rewarding behavior in other aspects of relationship – positives need to balance out negatives. 2. Understand the other’s point of view.
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Relationship-enhancing attributions
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1. Assuming that when it comes to your partner: negative behaviors are situational, temporary, and limited in scope positive behaviors are inherent, permanent, and generalizable 2. These attributions are found in happy couples. 3. Unhappy couples tend to make distress-maintaining attributions, which are the opposite.

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