Social Psychology Chapter 5: The Self

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Independent view of the Self
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a way of defining oneself in term’s of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings & actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
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Interdependent View of the Self
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a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people; recognizing that one’s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
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Introspection
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The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
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Self Awareness Theory
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The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal stands and value
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Causal Theories
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theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (ex: absence makes the heart grow fonder)
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Reason Generated Attitude Change
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Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize
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Self Perception Theory
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The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs.
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Intrinsic Motivation
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The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
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Extrinsic Motivation
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The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
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Overjustification Effect
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The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
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Task Contingent Rewards
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Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
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Performance Contingent Rewards
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Rewards based on how well we perform a task.
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Fixed Mindset
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The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change.
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Growth Mindset
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The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
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Upward Social Comparison
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comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
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Downward Social Comparison
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comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
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Impression Management
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The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
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Ingratiation
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The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
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Self Handicapping
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The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
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Self Esteem
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peoples evaluations of their own self worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
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Terror Management Theory
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The theory that holds that self-esteem serves as a buffer, protecting people from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality
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Narcissism
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The combination of excessive self-love and a lack of empathy toward others
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Self Concept
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The content of the self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
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Possible Selves (Type of Self Concept)
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Self concepts that describe what you could or want to be ex: healthy, successful, married
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Ideal Self
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who we want to be, determined by hopes, wishes and dreams
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Ought Self
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who we should be, determined by a sense of duty , responsibility or obligation.
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Development of Self Concept
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the factors that determine our self concept or answers \”Who am i?\” 1. roles we play 2. social identities we form 3. comparisons we make to each other 4. successes and failures 5. how other people judge us 6. the culture around us
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Social Comparison Theory
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The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
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Festinger’s Hypothesis
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According to Festinger’s theory of social comparison people gain self-knowledge and self-awareness by comparing themselves to others. People prefer to compare themselves to others in a close proximity such as co-workers, friends, family members, etc. Festinger defined two types of comparisons upward comparisons and downward comparisons
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Upward Comparisons
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involves a person comparing themselves to someone that is above them in some form. An example of this is someone who suffers from depression comparing themselves to someone who is generally happy. Festinger theorized that these types of comparisons could worsen mood disorders like depression because they would see themselves as being below others and thus become more depressed. -can provide information of how to improve -can inspire you to work towards your goals -can also make you feel inferior
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Downward Comparison
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Downward comparison is when an individual compares themselves to someone who is considered beneath them. An example of this would be when a person who has worked hard to attain some knowledge now views those without that knowledge as inferior. This type of comparison has the potential to explain delusions of grandiosity in schizophrenic patients who continually make downward comparisons. -makes us feel better about ourselves
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Automaticity Premise
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The Looking Glass Self
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we view ourselves through the eyes of others and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self-concept
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Self Concept: The Culture That Surrounds US
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-western cultures: INDEPENDENT view of self (defines ones internal thoughts, feelings and actions and NOT in terms of thoughts, feelings and actions of others.) -less self critical -other cultures :INTERDEPENDENT view of self (define ones self in relationship to others, recognizing that ones behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings and behaviors or others. -more self critical
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Relational Interdependence/ Collective Interdependence
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–women are more relational interdependence self concept. they focus on more close relationships such as how they feel about a spouse, child best friend –men are more collective interdependence self concept. they focus on their memberships in larger groups, such as being an american or in a frat.
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Self Knowledge
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things we don’t do so well…….explaining your own behavior
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Private Self Conscious
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I am always trying to figure myself out. (draw E from self perspective…so you can see it)
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Public Self Consciousness
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I usually worry about making a good impression. (Draw E from observers perspective..so everyone can see it)
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Rewarding Behavior
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-Rewards can be powerful motivators. -But humans can sometimes look to rewards to infer whether they like doing something/not. -Dangers of reward programs: kids begin to think they are reading to earn the reward, not because they find it enjoyable. -Can be good because they are good at producing the behavior that is wanted to be performed BUT people rely on those rewards and only do things in order to gain a reward. Suddenly we arent doing it because we like the learning/or doing whatever asked. Undermines kids in the future to not want to do good things. Undercuts intrinsic motivation and doing something because you love it.
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Task-contingent rewards:
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people only get them for completing the task, regardless of how well they do it.
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Performance-contingent rewards:
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-the reward depends on how well people perform the task. (color in all the lines…get a star if you get in all the lines…do it well and get a star) -less likely to decrease interest in a task and might even motivate you, because you are doing well!
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Two Factor Theory of Emotion
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The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it. = emotional experience results from two factors. 1) people experience phsyciological arousal 2) they then seek an appropriate explanation for it(how we label that arousal is our emotion)
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Misattribution of arousal
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= the process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do

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