Social Psychology – Ch. 9 Interpersonal Attraction

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Interpersonal attraction
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The degree to which we like other individuals
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Levinger – five possible relationship stages
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1. initial attraction 2. building a relationship 3. continuation 4. deterioration 5. ending
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Propinquity effect
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The more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
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Zajonc’s theory of repeated exposure – what does exposure lead to if the stimulus is positive?
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A more positive evaluation of the stimulus
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Zajonc’s theory of repeated exposure – what does exposure lead to if the stimulus is negative?
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More dislike for the stimulus
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Mere exposure effect
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The more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
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Physical attractiveness
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Combination of facial and bodily characteristics that are generally perceived as visually appealing or unappealing
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Appearance anxiety
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Apprehension or worry about whether one’s appearance is adequate and about the evaluations of other people
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Evolutionarily, who are men attracted to/who do they mate with?
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Young, healthy, fertile females
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Evolutionarily, who do women mate with?
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Men who could best provide and protect
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Face – what do men like?
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Both neoteny (childlike features) and maturity (well-defined features)
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Face – what do women like?
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– Big eyes – Prominent cheekbones – Rugged chins – some like feminine features of full lips, slender nose, and finer chin
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What type of male faces are women attracted to when ovulating?
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Masculine faces
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Waist-to-hip ratio
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Measurement of circumference of the waist relative to the hips
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Waist-to-hip ratio, what’s attractive on: – women – men
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– .7 – .9
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Body mass index (BMI)
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Measurement of body weight relative to height
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Affect-centred model of attraction
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A conceptual framework in which attraction is assumed to be based on positive and negative emotions
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Affect-centred model of attraction – what two ways can emotions be aroused?
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– Direct effect – Associated effect
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Affect-centred model of attraction – direct effect
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Another person says or does something that makes you feel good or bad
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Affect-centred model of attraction – associated effect
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A person is merely present when something good or bad occurs
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Emotions and Attraction – Direct effect of emotions on attraction
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Attraction can occur based on affective reaction to person’s appearance, attitudes, etc.
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Emotions and Attraction – Indirect effects of emotions on attraction
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Other sources (recent experience, your physical state, current mood) influence your mood and evaluations of others
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Need for affiliation
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The motive to seek interpersonal relationships
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What is considered an integral part of growing intimacy?
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Self-disclosure
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Self-disclosure
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Revelation of personal information about the self to someone else
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Festinger’s theory of social comparison
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Our tendency to evaluate our opinions and abilities based on comparison with other people
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Festinger’s theory of social comparison – who do we prefer to compare ourselves with?
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People who are similar to ourselves
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Similarity
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Attraction to people who are like us
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Complementarity
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Attraction to people who are opposite to us
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Proportion of similar attitudes
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Number of topics similar to each other compared to number of topics discussed
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Repulsion hypothesis
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Attraction is not enhanced by similar attitudes; instead, people are initially attracted and then repulsed by the discovery of dissimilar attitudes
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Matching hypothesis
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Individuals are attracted as friends, romantic partners or spouses on the basis of similar attributes
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Love styles
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Basic theories people have about love that guide their behaviour in relationships
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Love styles – types (6)
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– Eros – Ludus – Storge – Pragma – Mania – Agape
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Love styles – eros
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Passionate, physical love, where the partner’s physical appearance is very important
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Love styles – ludus
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Love as a game, never too serious
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Love styles – storge
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Slow-growing love which evolves out of friendship/affection
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Love styles – pragma
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Commensensical, realistic love, in which conditions must be met
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Love styles – mania
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Highly emotional, roller-coaster ride love
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Love styles – agape
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Selfless, giving and altruistic love where you think not of yourself but your partner and what you can do for them
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – 3 peaks
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– Intimacy (liking) – Passion (infatuation) – Commitment (empty love)
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – between passion and commitment
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Fatuous love
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – between passion and intimacy
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Romantic love
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – between commitment and intimacy
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Companionate
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – in center
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Consummate love
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – companionate love
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The feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person about whom we care deeply
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Sternberg’s triangle of love – passionate love
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The feelings of intense longing, accompanied by physiological arousal, we feel for another person; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair
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Attachment theory
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The theory that our behaviour in adult relationships is based on our experiences as infants with our parents or caregivers
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Attachment styles
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The expectations people develop about relationships with others based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
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Attachment styles – types (3)
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– Secure – Avoidant – Anxious/ambivalent
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Secure attachment style
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Characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
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Anxious/ambivalent attachment style
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Characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one’s desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety
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Avoidant attachment style
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Characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed
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Avoidant attachment style – 2 types
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– Fearful avoidant – Dismissive avoidant
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Avoidant attachment style – fearful avoidant
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Close relationships are avoided due to mistrust and fears of being hurt
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Avoidant attachment style – dismissive avoidant
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Person is self-sufficient and claims not to need close relationships
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Social exchange theory
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The theory that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and the probability that they could have a better relationship with someone else
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Reward/cost ratio
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The notion that there is a balance between the rewards that come from a relationship and the personal cost of maintaining the relationship (if ratio is not favourable, dissatisfaction)
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Comparison level
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People’s expectations about the levels of rewards and costs that they deserve in a relationship
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Comparison level for alternatives
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People’s expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship
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Equity theory
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People are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs that a person experiences and the contributions he/she makes are roughly equal to the rewards, costs and contributions of the other person
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Investment model
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People’s commitment to a relationship depends on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs and comparison level; their comparison level for alternatives; and how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
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Exchange relationships
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Relationships governed by the need for equity (for a comparable ratio of rewards and costs)
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Communal relationships
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Relationships in which people’s primary concern is being responsive to the other person’s needs
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Positive illusions
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Idealization of our romantic relationships and partners in order to maintain the relationship
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Components of marital success (4)
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– Friendship – Commitment – Similarity – Positive affect
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Relationship awareness
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One of the partners starts to examine the relationship
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Sources of relationship conflict (4)
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– dissimilarities – boredom – positive vs. negative communication – jealousy
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Emotions and Attraction – other
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Affect aroused by one person can become associated with another person (prejudice against someone, then anyone who likes them is disliked)

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