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Social Psychology Ch 1 Test Questions

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What is Behaviorism?
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Theoretical approach that seeks to explain in terms of learning principles, without reference to inner states, thoughts, or feelings.
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What is Freudian pyschoanalysis?
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Theoretical approach that seeks to explain behavior by looking at the deep unconscious forces inside the person
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Which researcher conducted the first published social psychology experiment?
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Norman Triplett conducted the first published social psychology experiment.
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Who published the first social psychology textbook?
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William McDougall and Edward Ross published the first social psychology textbook.
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Who claimed that attitudes were the most important and useful concept in social psychology?
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Gordon Allport claimed that attitudes were the most important and useful concept in social psychology.
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What two camps was social psychology divided into in the 1950s and 1960s?
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In the 1950s and 1960s psychology was divided into the Behaviorists and psychoanalytical camps.
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What is Social Psychology?
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Social psychology is a branch of psychology that seeks a broad understanding of how human beings thinks, act, and feel.
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What is the ABC triad?
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The ABC triad are the building blocks of social psychology.
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What does the A in the ABC triad stand for?
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The A in the ABC triad stands for Affect (how people feel inside), how people feel about themselves, others, and various issues (attitudes)
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What does the B in the ABC triad stand for?
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The B in the ABC triad stands for Behavior (what people do, their actions) i.e. joining groups, helping others, hurting others, liking others, and loving others.
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What does the C in the ABC triad stand for?
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The C in the ABC triad stands for Cognition (what people think about), i.e. what people think about themselves (self-concept), what people think about others (stereotypes), and what people think about various problems and issues in the social world (something like protecting the environment)
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Unconscious forces are to reinforcement histories as _________ is to _________.
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Unconscious forces are to reinforcement histories as psychoanalysis is to behaviorism.
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What psychologist is primarily associated with psychoanalysis?
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Sigmond Freud is primarily associated with psychoanalysis.
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What are the 3 components of the ABC triad?
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Affect, Behavior, and Cognition are the 3 components of the ABC triad.
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What is the primary approach that soical psychologists use to uncover the truth about human soical behavior?
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The scientific method is the primary approach that social psychologists use to uncover the truth about human social behavior.
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What is Anthropology?
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Anthropology is the study of human culture–the shared valuses, beliefs, and practices of a group of people.
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What is Economics?
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Economics is the study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and the study of money.
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What is the Social exchange theory that is based on economic principles?
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The social exchange theory predicts commitment to relationships by considering factors such as the costs, rewards, investments, and the number of alternatives available.
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What is History?
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History is the study of past events. Humans should understand past events and learn from them.
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What is Political Science?
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Political Science is the study of political organizations and institutions, especially governments. Social Psychologists conduct research on political behavior.
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What is Sociology?
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Sociology is the study of human societies and the groups that form those societies. Sociologists focus on the group as a single unit, whereas social psychologist focus on the individual members that make up the group.
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What is Biological Psychology?
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Biological or Physiological Psychology and Neuroscience focus on what happens in the brain, nervous system, and other aspects of the body.
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What is Clinical Psychology?
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Clinical Psychology focuses on “abnormal” behavior, whereas social psychology focuses on “normal” behavior. Clinical Psychology focuses on behavior disorders and other forms of mental illness and how to treat them.
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What is Cognitive Psychology?
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Cognitive Psychology is the basic study of thought processes, such as how memory works and what events people notices.
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What is Developmental Psychology?
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Developmental psychology is the study of how people change across their lives, from conception and birth to old age and death.
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What is Personality Psychology?
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Personality Psychology focuses on important differences between individuals, as well as inner processes. i.e. Introverted person versus an extroverted person.
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A social psychologist is usually interested in studying the _____________.
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A social psychologist is usually interested in studying the Individual.
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“Abnormal” behavior is to “normal” behavior as ___________ is to ____________.
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“Abnormal” behavior is to “normal” behavior as Clinical Psychology is to Social Psychology.
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What does “Philosophy” mean?
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Philosophy (from the Greek philo-sophia) means “love of wisdom”; it is the pursuit of knowledge about fundamental matters such as life, death, meaning, reality, and truth. Psychology was originally a part of philosophy, until about 1900 when it separated from it.
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What are Applied Researchers as well as applied research?
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Scholars (Social Scientists) whose research is applied to a specific problem due to desire to fix a particular problem. Applied Research focuses on solving a particular practical problem.
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Who said that he spent his entire life studying social psychology because he had a “basic curiosity about people”?
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Edward E. Jones said he spent his entire life studying social psychology because he had a “basic curiosity about people”.
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What term when translated means “love of wisdom”?
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Philosophy comes from the Greek word philo-sophia, which translates to “love of wisdom”
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What is the main factor that separates philosophy from psychology?
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The methods used to study problems. Psychology uses the scientific method whereas Philosophy is more apt to use thoughts and systematics.
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Who said “There is nothing as practical as a good theory”?
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Kurt Lewin said “There is nothing as practical as a good theory”.
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What is a hypothesis?
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A hypothesis is an idea about the possible nature of reality; a prediction tested in experiment. Cambridge Dictionary ( a hypothesis is an idea or explanation for somehting that is based on known facts but has not yet been proven. Lay people often define a hypothesis as an “educated guess”
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What is a Theory?
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Theories are composed of contructs (abstract ideas or concepts) that are linked together in some logical way. Because constructs cannot be observed directly, the researcher connects them with concrete observable variables using operational definitions.
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What is the Independent variable?
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The independent variable is any observable event that causes the person to do something. It is independed in the sense that its values are created by the researcher and are not affected by anything else that happens in the experiment. There are always 2 variables.
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What is the Dependent variable?
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The dependent variable is any observable behavior produced by the person. It is “dependent” in the sense that its values are assumed to depend upon the values of the independent variable.
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What is an Operational Definition?
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An operational definition classifies theoretical constructs in terms of observable operations, procedures, and measurements.
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What is Construct Validity of the Cause?
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Construct Validity of the Cause means that the independent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical stimulus.
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What is Construct Validity of the Effect?
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Construct Validity of the Effect means that the dependent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical response.
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What is an Experiment?
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An Experiment is a study in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable and randomly assigns people to groups (levels of the independent variable)
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What does Random Assignment mean?
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Random Assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being in each group.
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What is a Quasi-experiment?
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A Quasi-experiment is when a researcher can manipulate an independent variable, but cannot use random assignment. In a Quasi-experiment a researcher “takes people as they are”.
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What is Internal Validity?
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Internal Validity means that in a study the researcher can be relatively confident that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.
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What is a Confederate?
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A Confederate is a research assistant pretending to be another participant in a study.
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What does Reactance mean?
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Reactance is an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom (Or, an intruder on a persons perceived “territory” creates a challenge to the occupant’s control over the territory) Psychological Reactance Theory
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What is a Field Experiment?
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A field experiment is a an experiment conducted in a real world setting rather than in a laboratory.
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What is the difference between Experimental Realism and Mundane Realism and which is more important in an experimental setting?
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Experimental realism refers to whether participants get so caught up in the procedures of the experiment that they forget they are in an experiment. Mundane realism refers to whether the setting phsycially resembles the real world. Experimental realism is far more important in determing if the results can be applied in the real world.
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What is External Validity?
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External validity is the extent to which the findings from a study can be generalized to other people, other settings, and other time periods. This is why Experimental Realism is so important.
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What is the Correlational Approach used by soical psychologists?
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In the Correlational Approach the researcher does not try to control variables or randomly assign participants to groups. The researcher merely observes whether things go together normally.
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What is a correlation?
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A correlation gives/shows the relationship or association between two variables. (Positive Correlation btwn smoking & lung canner, the more people smoke, the more likely they are to get lung cancer) (Negative Correlation btwn playing video games and grades of college students, more video games played the lower the students GPA.
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What is the Correlation Coefficient and how is it denoted?
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The Correlation Coefficient is denoted by (r) and can range from +1.0 (perfect positive correlation) to -1.0 (perfect negative correlation). A correlation coefficient of 0 indicates the 2 variables are not linearly related. The closer the correlation is to +1 or -1 the stronger it is.
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What concept allows science to be self-correcting over time?
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Replication allows science to be self-correcting over time.
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Social psychology is criticized on what grounds?
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Social psychology laboratories are artificial settings. College students are not representative of real people. And Social psychology dependent variables are unrealistic.
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Most social psychological studes use participants from which continent?
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Most social psychological studies use participants from North America.
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What type of participants do most social psychologists use in their studies?
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Most social psychologists use college students in their studies.
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T/F The mere presence of another person enhances performance on a simple task.
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True.
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T/F Individual effort decreases as group size increases.
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True.
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T/F Behaviorism seeks to explain all of psychology in terms of learning principles such as reward and punishment.
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True.
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What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method?
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1. state a problem for study. 2. formulate a testable hypothesis(educated guess) as a solution to the problem. 3. Design a study to test the hypothesis and collect data. 4. Test the hypothesis by confronting it with the data. 5. Communicate the study’s results.