Social Psych Final Study Guide (Ch. 4-8)

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Theory of Planned Behavior
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Attitudes can predict behavior in light of surrounding norms, feelings of perceived control, and behavioral intentions.
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ABCs of Attitudes
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Affect- emotional reactions to the object Behavior- attitudes are associated with specific intentions/behaviors Cognitions- knowledge about the object, beliefs, ideas, memories, images
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Attittude
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Subjective (conscious or unconscious) evaluation of an object, person, place, or event as being favorable or unfavorable.
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When do attitudes predict behavior?
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personal influences, characteristics of the attitude itself, situational influences, measurement of attitudes
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Attitude Activation
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In order to influence behavior, an attitude must be activated from memory. Attitudes are often automatically activated when the attitude object is present
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Attitude Strength
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Accessibility. Degree to which attitude is ready to become active in the individual’s mind. Often measured by response latency.
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Accessabiliyy
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Degree to which attitude is ready to become active in the individual’s mind. Often measured by response latency.
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Centrality
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Measures a variety of attitudes within a domain. Extent to which a particular attitude is linked to the other similar attitudes.
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Mode Model
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Attitudes may predict behavior in some situations, but not others.
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Principle of Compatibility
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Measurement of attitudes and behaviors should involve the same actions, targets, contexts, and time elements. Measuring an attitude and behavior at the same level of specificity can maximize the predictive power of attitudes.
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Why is the attitude-behavior link so inconsistent?/Why are attitudes weak predictors of behavior?
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Attitudes may be general but behaviors may be specific
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How can the attitude-behavior link be strengthened?
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Indirect measures of attitudes (ex: implicit association test)
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Does behavior determine attitudes?
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Yes! Doing or seeing can be believing.
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Example of when behavior predicts attitudes?
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Foot in the door Phenomenon
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Foot in the door Phenomenon
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The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
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Low-ball technique
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Getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment. Example: Car salesman.
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
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Why does behavior influence attitudes?
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Self-presentation theory, balance theory, cognitive dissonance theory, self-perception theory.
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Self-Perception Theory
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People develop their attitudes by observing their own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused it (over-justification effect).
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Evolutionary Psychology
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Study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
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Major Criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology
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Difficult to test, Ethical issues, behaviors as redetermined, Ignores non-genetic factors of human development
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Cultural Norms
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standards for accepted and expected behavior
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Cultural Variation in Norms
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Expressiveness Cultural Stereotypes \”warm, charming, time-wasting\” \”efficient, cold, and over concerned\” Punctuality Arriving on time Eye contact Rule-Breaking the extent to which other norms are violated upon observing social rules being broken Personal Space buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
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Cultural Similarity in Norms
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Friendship Norms, trait dimensions, social beliefs, status norms, incest taboo, norms of war
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Gender Roles
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A set of behavioral expectations (norms) for males and females
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Epigenetics
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Interaction of biology and culture
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Gender Differences
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Fight-or-Flight versus \”Tend-and-Befriend\” and male dominance
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Conformity
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Tendency to change beliefs and behaviors in ways that are consistent with group standards
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Compliance
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Doing what we are asked to do even though we may not want to
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Obedience
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Doing what we are asked to do because some authority has asked us
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Sherif – (Norm Formation)
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The Autokinetic Effect. A single point of light seen in the dark appears to move — even though it really is not
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The Autokinetic Effect
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Groups of people brought into the room Light is displayed. Participants are asked: \”How far did the light move?\” They base their answers on what others say. Eventually a group norm is established and everyone is saying roughly the same thing. Later on when by themselves, people still follow group norm.
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Asch – (Group pressure)
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Line Study. Performed famous study on conformity in which people gave an obviously incorrect answer just to conform to the group.
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Milgrim’s Shock Study – Obedience to authority
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Study of the willingness of a patient to obey an authority figure (patient was told by authority figure to shock individuals who gave wrong answers, majority shocked up to highest shock despite cries from person receiving shock)
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Why do people conform?
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Informational influence Normative influence
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Informational Influence
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Turning to information from others as evidence of reality Motivated by the desire to be right Based on: How well informed we think the group is How confident we are in our own knowledge Leads to change in behavior and underlying attitude
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Normative Influence
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Conforming to the expectations of others in an attempt for approval, acceptance, or relatedness, the desire to be liked. Often leads to an outward change in behavior but not necessarily a change in private opinions.
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Optimal Distinctiveness Theory
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We want to be unique and distinct.
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Persuasion
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Process by which a message induces change in our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
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2 primary routes of persuasion
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Central and peripheral
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Central Route
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Listening carefully to and analyzing arguments, Requires (1) ability and (2) motivation, Leads to long-lasting attitude change, Resistant to future persuasion attempts
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Peripheral Route
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Don’t elaborate on argument or think critically, Rely on heuristics to make decisions, Easily influenced by peripheral cues, Occurs when distracted or uninterested, Attitude change likely temporary (superficial)
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What types of variables influence whether a message will be interpreted via central versus peripheral routes?
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Central route Peripheral route Source characteristics – credibility, attractiveness Message characteristics – primacy and recency Audience characteristics – age Channel of communication – visual, auditory, etc.
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Group
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Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as \”us\”
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Groupthink
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Tendency of decision-making groups to suppress dissent in the interest of group harmony. Facilitated by…Group cohesion, Group isolation, Directive leadership
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Group Polarization
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The enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group. Explains good and bad outcomes.
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Risky Shift
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The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals would. Group decides by consensus. After discussion, individuals alter decisions.
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When do individuals influence groups?
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With consistency, self-confidence, and defection.
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When are individuals influenced by groups in minimal group situations?
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Social facilitation Social Loafing Deindividuation
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Social Facilitation
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Presence of others facilitates performance most of the time. High arousal, easy task/enhanced performance. High arousal, difficult task=lower performance.
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Social Loafing
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Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
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Deindividuation
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Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension. Occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms. Facilitated by: anonymity, group size, arousing and distracting activities, diminished self-awareness.
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Free Riders
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People who benefit from the group but give little in return.
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Deindivuation is an example of
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Group influence
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When a task is easy and others are observing, according to social facilitation theory
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there will be an improvement in performance
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Group polarization occurs when
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members in a group interact but instead of changing their mind on topic keep their own ideas
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Regina wears a hoodie to school because all of her friends do. What is this an example of?
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Conformity
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Which theorist conducted pioneering studies on the topic of conformity?
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Solomon Asch
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Normative influence stems from our desire to be __, and informational influence springs from our desire to be _____.
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liked; right
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One ides of evolutionary psychology that applies to social psychology is that
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a person’s behavior and personality traits which are considered favorable by one’s culture are more likely to be passed onto the next generation through reproduction
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What does the implicit association test (IAT) measure?
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Unconscious attitudes
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Regarding the relationship between a person’s attitudes and behavior, which statement is not completely accurate?
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A person’s attitude will always predict their behavior.

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