Social Psych Ch. 9

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Prejudice
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a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members can be positive, but almost always negative it is an attitude
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ABCs of Attitude
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Affect (feelings) Behavior tendency (inclination to act) Cognition (beliefs)
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_________ discrimination exceeds racial or gender discrimination
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weight
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common groups discriminated against:
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religion obesity sexual orientation age immigrants
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stereotype
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a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people to generalize; we do it to simplify the world sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information (but sometimes accurate)
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when are stereotypes dangerous?
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when they are OVERgeneralized… referred to as the \”10% problem\” often they reflect bias, sometimes the worst of a group is overgeneralized to the whole group
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discrimination
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unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members it’s source is usually prejudiced attitudes negative behavior (where as prejudice is a negative attitude)
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Racism
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an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
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Sexism
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an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex
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dual attitude system
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different explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) attitudes toward the same target prejudice is one of the best examples
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implicit cognition
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what you know without knowing that you know
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______attitudes often change with education, while ________ attitudes may linger
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explicit implicit
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prejudice can/cannot occur outside people’s awareness
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CAN
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Implicit Association Test
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tests strength of implicit associations things like \”white\” and \”good\” vs \”black and \”bad\”
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Racial prejudice
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______ prejudice has been replaced by _______ prejudice
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blatant/overt (conscious) subtle (unconscious): such as over/underpraising, patronization
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prejudice attitudes and discriminatory behavior surface when….
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they can hide behind the screen of some other motive
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do implicit attitudes affect our behaviors??
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yes
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weapons and prejudice (2 studies)
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wen primed with a Black face, people mistake things for guns (wrench) but not the case when primed with a white face the reverse….exposing people to weapons makes them pay more attention to African Americans (and to judge African Americans more harshly)
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Gender Prejudice
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gender-role norms
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people’s ideas about how women and men ought to behave
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gender stereotypes
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how women and men do behave
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norms are ______ stereotypes are _______ stereotypes vs. prejudice
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norms: prescriptive stereotypes: descriptive stereotypes: beliefs prejudices: attitudes
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two stereotype conclusions
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1. Strong gender stereotypes exist 2. members of the stereotyped group accept it
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are gender stereotypes accurate?
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some studies have shown that they are approximations of actual gender differences
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gender stereotypes across the world
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tend to be persistent across time and cultures
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People’s attitude towards women…
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mirrors their attitude towards African Americans (has made significant strides in the pasty years) similar percent would now vote for women that would vote for an African American President
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most people like ____ more than ____
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women men
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gender attitudes are ambivalent
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benevolent sexism (women have a superior moral sensibility) hostile sexism (women hold men on a \”tight leash\”)
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do women discriminate against women?
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YES
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over the entire spectrum of research, judgement of someone’s work…
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is not over or under valued based on it being the work of a woman (or a man).
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misogyny
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hatred of women
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gender genocide
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baby boys are preferred over baby girls worldwide, but especially in certain cultures; and due to increased availability of ultrasounds and abortions…is leading to drastic measures
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social sources of prejudice
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______ _______ breeds prejudice
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unequal status
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often prejudices justify…
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justify the unequal/inferior status of another this allows the superior to stay inferior and view it in a way that doesn’t undermine their superiority
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liking vs. respecting
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often we either like OR respect a group… usually we like those we think are lower (or incompetent) and we respect those who we think are higher (but don’t think of them as \”warm\”)
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social dominance orientation
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a motivation to have one’s group dominate other social groups
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status may breed prejudice, but…
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some people more than others seek to MAINTAIN status
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socialization
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children are brought up in ways that foster or reduce prejudice children’s prejudices often mirror their perceived prejudices of their mothers
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authoritarian personality
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a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status those who are highly prejudice tend not to be specific to a certain group, but broadly to those who are \”different\” particularly prone to engage in prejudice and stereotypes
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ethnocentric
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believing in the superiority of one’s own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups. intolerance for weakness, punitive attitude and a submissive respect for their group’s authorities
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reasons one may have an authoritarian personality
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insecurities predispose them excessive concern with power/status and inflexible right-wrong way of thinking increased by perceived brutality toward inferiors, specifically threatening circumstances
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Religion and Prejudice
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used as justification/maintaining the social inequalities, while being able to say \”all things are created equal\” believing that God has ordained the existing social order
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consistent findings of religion and prejudice
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1. white church members express more racial prejudice than nonmembers 2. those professing fundamentalist beliefs express more prejudice than those professing more progressive beliefs
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three possible causal relationships (we know there is a correlation, but do we know a causation?)
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1. There is no causal relationship (third outlying factor responsible for both) 2. prejudice causes religion 3. religion causes prejudice
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three findings that are inconsistent with religion correlating with prejudice
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1. faithful churchgoers display less prejudice than occasional attendees 2. people who see religion as an end (religion is the reason for my life and all i do) shows less prejudice than those who see religion as a means (a social scene…ect) 3. clergy show less prejudice than do laypeople
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Conformity
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once established, prejudice is generally maintained because people want to take the path of least resistance breaking social norms, once established, of any kind, can be extremely difficult to change
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institutional supports
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social institutions may bolster prejudice through overt policies or passively reinforcing the status quo
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face-ism
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male photos in the media more often show just the face than women’s photos
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motivational sources of prejudice
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the scapegoat theory
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frustration and aggression evoke hostility. displaced agression: when the cause is unknown we redirect our hostility people vent fear/hostility on the easiest target they can find
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frustration
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the blocking of a goal common source: passion, competition
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realistic group conflict theory
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prejudice arises from competition between groups for scare resources one group does not succeed, experiences frustration, and vents it through frustration to the other group prejudice is correlated to frustration levels of the time/place
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social identity theory:
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feeling superior to others the \”we\” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to \”Who am I?\” that comes from our group memberships
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self-concept
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our sense of who we are contains not only a personal identity but also a social identity
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observations about our tendency to social identity theory
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we categorize we idnetify (ingroups) we compare (outgroups) we naturally seek out/have an innate need to belong, but especially in times of threatened or small personal identity
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ingroup outgroup
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ingroup: \”us\” a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity outgroup: \”them\” a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup
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ingroup bias
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tendency to favor one’s own group
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terror management
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according to terror management theory, people’s self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural world views and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality/fragility
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motivation to avoid prejudice
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breaking prejudice habit is not easy, many times many thoughts, knee jerk reactions and facial expressions exhibit more prejudice than we want/wish to express
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cognitive sources of prejudice
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categorization:
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classifying people into groups we do this to simplify our world we use the categorizations (even prejudice ones) when…. pressed for time preoccupied tired emotionally aroused too young to appreciate diversity more prejudiced people use these categories more frequently and quicker \”that’s an indian person\”, where as less prejudiced people are more inclined to say \”who cares?\”
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outgroup homogeneity effect
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perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members \”they are alike; we are diverse\”
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own-race bias
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tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race AKA: cross-race effect/other-race effect….can occur in age groups called \”own-age bias\” a type of outgroup homogeneity effect
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distinctiveness…
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perceiving people who stand out. distinctive people or extreme occurrences capture attention more and distort judgements we are also defined or referred to by our most distinctive features \”snake-owner\” over \”dog-owner\”
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minorities usually feel more ______-_______
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self-conscious
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stigma consciousness
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a person’s expectations of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination how much they expect others to stereotype them
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vivid cases
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our minds use distinctive cases as a shortcut to judging groups given limited experience with a given social group, we recall example of it and generalize form those distinctive events foster illusory correlations
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attribution
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fundamental attribution error
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we assume other’s behavior is due to inner dispositions that we discount important situational forces example that slave behavior was considered to be innate personality dispositions, instead of a product of the fact they were IN slavery
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group serving bias
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explaining away out group member’s positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group) outgroup positive behavior–>seen as a special case outgroup negative behavior–>innate dispositions ingroup negative behavior–>special case this phenomenon is less prominent in humble (stress modesty) or disadvantaged groups
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linguistic intergroup bias
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group-serving bias of our descriptions outgroup positive behavior–>Maria helped him (situational) outgroup negative behavior–>Maria is rude (dispositional)
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The just-world phenomenon
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tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they got \”if you don’t have a job, and you’re not rich, blame yourself!\”
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Consequences of prejudice
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self-perpetuating prejudgements
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prejudgments guide our attention and our memories whenever a member of a group behaves as expected, we duly note the fact; our prior belief is confirmed
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subtyping
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accommodating individuals who deviate from one’s stereotype by thinking of them as \”exceptions to the rule\”
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subgrouping
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accommodating individuals who deviate from one’s stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this specific subset of the group \”senior olympians\” \”professional, middle-class Blacks\”
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Discrimination’s Impact
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social beliefs can be self-confirming if someone treats you different, that obviously is going to affect you
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stereotype threat
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disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotype. unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one’s reputation into one’s self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects (someone interviewing you sits far away, stammers, and ends the interview quickly….you are more likely to be nervous and timid and not perform as well)
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how does stereotype threat undermine performance?
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1. stress 2. self-monitoring 3. suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions (takes energy)
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if stereotype threats can disrupt performance, could positive stereotypes enhance it?
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yes!
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do stereotypes bias judgments of individuals
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yes: usually–> 1. stereotypes mostly reflect (sometimes distort) reality 2. people often evaluate individuals more positively than the groups they compose (after getting to know someone, prejudices are often have a minimal effect) strong stereotypes–>color judgments of individuals more strongly sterotypes also bias interpretation

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