Social Psych 3

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The technique of getting a commitment from a potential customer and then changing the terms of the agreement is best described as
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low-balling.
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Sherif (1936) asked groups of participants to estimate the distance moved by a point of light. He found that
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as the study progressed, the participants’ estimates began to converge with each other.
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The compliance technique in which compliance to a desired request is increased by first gaining compliance to a smaller, but related, request is called
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the foot-in-the-door technique.
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One factor that did not seem related to the amount of obedience exhibited in the Milgram obedience study was the
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participant’s sex.
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Many participants in the social influence study conducted by ______ gave public responses that they privately knew to be inaccurate.
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Asch
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The concepts of ostracism and conformity are related in that
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failure to conform can lead to ostracism.
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As compared to conformity, compliance occurs
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in response to a direct request
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Joe is usually very agreeable, and goes along with his friends’ plans. Tonight, however, he tells his friends that he does not want to go with them to crash a party. Joe’s friends accept his refusal to join them, because Joe usually goes along with the group. This is because Joe has
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idiosyncrasy credits
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What percentage of the participants in Milgram’s study of destructive obedience demonstrated complete obedience to the experimenter?
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65%
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In Burger’s (2009) replication of Milgram’s obedience experiments, how many participants continued to shock past 150 volts?
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70%
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The effectiveness of low-balling seemed to be based on the psychology of
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commitment
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You’re out with friends when a talk show host walks up and asks if you’ll answer a few trivia questions on camera. When he asks how many feet are in a mile, your first friend says 2,000 and your second friend says 3,000. You don’t know the correct answer, so you say 2,500. Your response is similar to the judgments made by participants in which study?
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Sherif (1936)
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The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others.
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private conformity
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When we conform to others’ behaviors or attitudes because we believe that their interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more accurate than ours, ________ has occurred.
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informational influence
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The unspoken rule dictating that we should treat others as they have treated us is called the
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norm of reciprocity.
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A superficial change in overt behavior, without a corresponding change of opinion, produced by real or imagined group pressure.
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public conformity
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According to the dual-process approach, majorities exert influence by producing _____, whereas minorities exert influence by producing _____.
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public conformity; private conformity
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Normative influence tends to produce ____, whereas informational influence leads to ____.
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public conformity; private conformity
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According to social impact theory, the source’s proximity in time and space to a target determines the source’s
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immediacy
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Informational influence occurs primarily because people
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believe that others are correct in their judgments.
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Which of the following has been demonstrated in research on attachment style?
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People’s attachment styles relate to the type of romantic relationships they have.
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Equity theory predicts that people are most satisfied in their relationships when the
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rewards and costs one partner experiences are roughly equal to those of the other partner.
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Research suggests that self-disclosure reciprocity is more important
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in the early stages of a relationship
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Ainsworth and colleagues (1978) identified three basic attachment styles which they termed
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secure; avoidant; anxious/ambivalent
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Happy and unhappy couples tend to make use of different attributional styles when explaining their spouses’ behaviors.
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True
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Keith and David are most likely to have a communal relationship if they are _____ and most likely to have an exchange relationship if they are _____.
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romantic partners; strangers
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A feeling of deprivation about existing social relations is called
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loneliness
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According to Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, the basic components of love are
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intimacy, passion, and commitment.
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The hard-to-get effect can be hard to get because
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All of these
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LeVay’s (1991) examination of the human brain found that
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the hypothalamus of homosexual men was similar in many respects to that of heterosexual women.
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The idea that relationships progress from superficial exchanges to relatively deeper ones is known as
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social penetration theory.
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An evolutionary perspective on attraction suggests that people prefer mates who will
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favor the conception and birth of their offspring.
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Arlene finds that even though she sat in the opposite corner of the classroom as Ronda did during the entire term of their chemistry class, when they bump into each other at a party, she seems to like Ronda more than the strangers around. This is best explained by
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mere exposure effect
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Wilma and Fred have been having difficulty in their relationship. Wilma thinks that Fred puts less than his share of time into the relationship and doesn’t try to please her. Fred gets quiet and sulks when Wilma makes these accusations. Wilma and Fred’s relationship seems to display
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the demand/withdraw interaction pattern
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The more we see and interact with other people, the more we like them. This statement captures the essence of the ______ effect.
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mere exposure
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According to your textbook, the single best predictor of whether two people will get together is
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physical proximity.
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Violet is moderately attracted to Charles. When her parents forbid her to date Charles because of his age, Violet becomes very attracted to Charles. Violet’s increased attraction to Charles is most likely due to
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psychological reactance
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Rita has a strong desire to establish and maintain social contact with others. Rita has
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high need for affiliation.
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The finding that infants spend more time looking at attractive, as compared to unattractive, faces supports the hypothesis that
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beauty is objective
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\”I find that others are reluctant to get as close to me as I would like them to. I often have dreams that my husband doesn’t love me like he used to, and that he leaves me unexpectedly. I guess have this need to lose myself in the person I love, and this sometimes scares them away.\” A person who is ______ attached most likely wrote those words.
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anxiously
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The cognitive component of empathy that involves seeing the world through someone else’s eyes is called
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perspective taking.
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Men are more likely than women to help others in situations involving
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physical danger and an audience
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LatanĂ© and Darley’s (1968) \”smoke-filled room\” study demonstrated the concept of
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pluralistic ignorance.
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The empathy-altruism model suggests that when escape from a situation is easy, people will
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offer help only when they have empathic concern
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The belief that one’s own thoughts and feelings differ from those of others, even though everyone is behaving in the same way, is called
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pluralistic ignorance.
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Kelli always tries to be very helpful because she believes it increases her chances of receiving help at a future time. Kelli’s thinking most closely reflects the concept of
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reciprocal altruism
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Actions intended to benefit others are called
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prosocial behaviors
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Darley and Batson (1973) found that the helping behavior of seminary students was best predicted by
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how much time they had.
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People are less likely to notice an emergency if they
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are under time pressure.
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Research on culture and helping indicates that collectivist cultures are more likely to help their _____ and less likely to help their _____.
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ingroup; outgroup
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Helping behavior is adaptive from an evolutionary standpoint if
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it helps to secure propagation of an individual’s genes.
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One reason that perceived similarity may increase helping is that it
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provides a meaningful connection between the helper and the person being helped
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According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, altruistic behavior is primarily the result of
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taking another’s perspective
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The norm of equity prescribes that when people are in a situation in which they feel _______, they should help those who are _______.
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overbenefited; underbenefited
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The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need is called
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diffusion of responsibility.
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Research on attractiveness and helping indicates that
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we are more likely to help attractive people than unattractive people.
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Reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers is called
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audience inhibition
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Helping in the face of enormous costs is called _____.
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courageous resistance
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Stimulus overload would interfere with potential helping behavior at which step of LatanĂ© and Darley’s (1970) five-step model of helping?
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Noticing the event

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