Social Behavior

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Attitudes
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Positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
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Attributions
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Inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior
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Bystander effect
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People are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone
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Channel
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The medium through which the message is sent
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Cognitive dissonance
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Exists when related cognitions are inconsistent that is, when they contradict each other
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Collectivism
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Involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
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Commitment
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An intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
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Companionate love
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Warm,trusting, tolerant effection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own
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Conformity
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Occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
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Defensive attribution
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A tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
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Discrimination
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Involves behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
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External attribution
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Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
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Foot-in-the-door technique
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Involves getting people to agree to a small request the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
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Fundamental attribution error
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Refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaning others’ behavior
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Group
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Consists of two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
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Group cohesiveness
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Refers to the strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
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Group polarization
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Occurs when group dicussion strengthens a group’s dominant point treme decision in that direction
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Groupthink
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Occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at decision
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Illusory correlation
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Occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmatins of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
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Individualism
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Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups and belongs
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Ingroup
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A group that one belongs to and identifies with
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Internal attributions
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Ascribe the causes of behavior to persnal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings
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Interpersonal attraction
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Refers to positive feelings toward another
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Intimacy
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Refers to warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
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Lowball technique
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Involves getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
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Matching hypothesis
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Proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
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Message
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The information transmitted by the source
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Obedience
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A form of compliance that occurs when peple follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
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Outgroup
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A group that one does not belong to or identify with
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Passionate love
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A complete absorption in another that includes sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
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Person perception
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The process of forming impressions of others
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Prejudice
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A negative attitude held toward members of a group
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Receiver
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The person to whom the mesage is sent
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Reciprocity norm
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The rule that we should pay back in kind what we receieve from others
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Self-serving bias
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The tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors
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Social loafing
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A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when the work by themselves
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Social psychology
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The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others
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Social roles
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Widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
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Social schemas
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Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people
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Stereotypes
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Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in particular group
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Source
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The person who sends a communication

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