SOCI 1101 Midterm

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What is the view that a society should be judged on its own terms, not in comparison with others, called?
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Cultural Relativism
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When can ethnocentrism be functional for a society?
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When it builds conformity and cohesiveness.
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To a sociologist, what is culture?
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A society’s ideas, values, beliefs, and technology
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The most important set of symbols is pictures
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False
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The attitude that one’s culture is superior to other cultures is known as ethnocentrism.
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True
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Norms are consistent with, but not the same as, values.
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True
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What is social status?
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It is a socially defined position of an individual in society
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What is an ascribed status?
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It is assigned at birth
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What is a social role?
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A set of expected behaviors
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What is the major difference between primary and secondary groups?
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The extent of personal intimacy
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Secondary groups are impersonal, but primary groups can form within them
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True
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Reference groups give us an important source of information about ourselves.
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True
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Increasing the size of a group strengthens group cohesiveness
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False
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Groups are organizations with clearly stated goals
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False
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We learn human behavior by interacting with others.
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True
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Children develop through natural stages of learning whether or not they interact with others.
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False
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The presentation of self is a form of behavior always used to avoid exposure of the real self.
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False
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Goffman compared social interaction to _____.
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Drama on a stage
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An individual uses ________ to tell the audience or others that the self is not what it appears to be.
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Disclaimers
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The __________ is considered the primary agency of socialization in the United States.
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Family
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How does the dictionary define sociology?
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The study of social relationships, social institutions, and society
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What is sociology?
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A social science
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Anthropologists generally study society as a whole, while sociologists are likely to concentrate on only one aspect of a society.
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True
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Sociologists only study economic systems.
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False
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What is of interest to social geographers?
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Distributions of people
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What is the sociological imagination?
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A conscious effort to question the obvious
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What should a sociologist do when reading a table?
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All of the above
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Sociological knowledge is based on subjective opinion.
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False
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The American Sociological Association’s definition of sociology reflects the belief that people can only be understood in a social context.
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True
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Why do sociologists study social life?
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To understand the regular recurrent patterns in social life
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Structural functional theorists regard society in a state of equilibrium, while conflict theorists regard society in a constant state of competition and change
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True
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Stopping at a stop light demonstrates the human ability to use symbols.
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True
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What do contemporary conflict theorists believe about conflict?
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Conflict is a permanent feature of social life
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In exchange theory, what is the basis of social relationships?
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Expectations of reciprocation
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Early sociologists often equated evolution with
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progress
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What do most sociologists rely on to understand social life?
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Empirical evidence
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The variable that causes an effect is the _____ variable.
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independent
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When researchers try to find the cause of health problems, these problems are the _____ variable.
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dependent
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In any scientific study the causal variable is the independent variable.
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True
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One of the aims of descriptive research is to provide facts about the social world.
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True
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Where does deviance occur?
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In all societies
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What is deviance?
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Behavior that violates norms
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What is the affect of deviance on the system?
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It helps maintain the system; it disrupts the system; it destroys trust in the system
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According to the social pathological view of deviance, where does deviance originate?
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An unhealthy society
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What does \”having a conscience\” assume?
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You have internalized certain ideas about deviant behavior
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Any behavior that is considered deviant in a man would be considered deviant in a woman
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False
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Norms for proper behavior vary by class
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True
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Deviant behavior indicates that society is sick, lacking in morals, and without morals
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False
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In many ways deviance is good and useful for society
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True
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What is inequality
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Unequal distribution of scarce resources
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What are characteristics of hunting and gathering societies
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Less stratification than exists in other societies
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People generally feel most comfortable with people who are
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People in their own social class
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What does income, education, and occupation measure?
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A person’s socioeconomic status
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What is true of racial groups?
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They are socially constructed categories of people who are distinguished from each other by selecting physical characteristics; definitions of race can include biological, physical, and social meanings; truly objective criteria of racial groups based on physical or biological characteristics do not seem to exist
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Ethnicity is based on national origin, religion, and language
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True
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Race is a meaningful biological concept for physical anthropologists
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False
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Prejudice is an overt act of barring people from social institutions
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False
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Prejudice is, in part, sustained through stereotypes
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True
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Germany, Rwanda, Sudan, and the US have all, at one time or another, encouraged genocide
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True
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The practice of systematically destroying a whole race
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is called genocide
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According to conflict theorists, the elderly are
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a minority group in a youth-based society
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Men in all societies are more assertive than women
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False
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What is part of the reason women remain in low-paying jobs?
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Their lack of experience in autonomy and authority
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One major reason women earn less then men?
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Wages in the secondary labor force, in which most working women are employed, are low
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What is the difference between gender and sex
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Gender pertains to the cultural concepts of masculinity and femininity
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Stereotypes about older people can lead to prejudice and discrimination. This is referred to as
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ageism
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What is age?
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An ascribed status
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Structural functionalists maintain that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional to the society
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True
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Conflict theorists hold that the gender roles assigned by a society are functional for both men and women
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False
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Jobs in the secondary labor force are being moved to developing world countries where women work for low wages
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True
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Women hold high status occupations proportionate to their numbers in the work force which is about on par with men.
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False
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Stress among women who are housewives occurs more from lack of respect than from the nature of their work
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True
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Age is a status achieved by living a long time
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False
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A natural accompaniment to old age is poor health
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False
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The elderly are more likely to live in cities and less likely to live in the suburbs than are other age groups
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True
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Most old men are married while most old women are not
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True
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Medicare covers all medical costs of the elderly
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False
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Disengagement theory argues that the elderly want to be less involved in the activities of society
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True
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Modernization theory states that the more modern a society, the lower the status of the elderly
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True
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Retirement is functional for society, and every society has a system for retiring the elderly from the workforce
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False

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