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SOCI 101 Chapter 1

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Sociology
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the systematic study of human society.
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Sociological Perspective
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seeing the general in the particular. Sociologists look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people.
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Global Perspective
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the study of the larger world and out society’s place in it.
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Enclosure Movement
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they fenced off more and more farmland to create grazing area for sheep, the source of wool for the thriving textile mills. Without land, countless tenant farmers had little choice but to head to the cities in search of work in the new factories.
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Theory
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a statement of how and why specific facts are related. In deciding what theory to use, sociologists face 2 basic questions: 1. what issues should we study? 2. how should we connect the facts?
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Theoretical Approach
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a basic image of society that suites thinking and research.
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Structural-Functional Approach
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one of the major theoretical approaches; a frame work for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
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Social Structure
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any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
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Social Function
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the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
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Manifest Functions
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the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
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Latent Functions
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the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
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Social Dysfunction
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any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
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Social-Conflict Approach
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a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. This approach highlights how factor (i.e. race, class, ethnicity, gender, and age) are linked in terms of money, power, education, and social prestige.
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Gender-Conflict Theory
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(feminist theory) the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between men and women.
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Feminism
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support of social equality for women and men.
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Race-Conflict Theory
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the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.
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Symbolic-Intergration Approach
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a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
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Macro-level Orientation
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a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole. Shared by structural-functional approach and the social-conflict approach.
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Micro-level orientation
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a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
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Social-Exchange Analysis
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the idea that interaction is guided by what each person stands to gains and lose from others.
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Positivist Sociology
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the study of society base on scientific observation of social behavior. Positivist research discovers facts through the use of science, a logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systematic observation. Sometimes called empirical sociology because it is based on empirical evidence, which is info. we can verify with out senses.
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Concept
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a basic element of science; a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form.
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Variable
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a concept whose values changes from case to case.
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Measurement
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a procedure for determining the values of a variable in a specific case.
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Reliability
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consistency in measurement.
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Validity
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actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
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Correlation
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a relationship in which 2 (or more) variables change together.
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Cause and Effect
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a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another. [cause = independent; effect = dependent ]
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Interpretive Sociology
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the study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world. Goal=discovering what people mean by what they do.
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Critical Sociology
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the study of society that focuses on the need for social change. Rather than asking \”How much inequality is there (positivist)?\”; critical sociologists ask moral and political questions, such as, \”Should we have this much inequality?\” or \”Should society exist in its present form?\”
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Gender
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the personal traits and social positions that members of society attach to being female or male.
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Research Method
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a systematic plan for doing research.
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Experiment
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a research method for investigation cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.
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Survey
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a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview. This is the most widely used os all research methods.
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Participant Observation
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a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routines. At the beginning, most researchers do not have specific a hypotheses in mind.