SHSAT Scrambled Paragraphs No. 2 ( Paragraph Structure)

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What is a paragraph?
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a group of closely related sentences that make one main idea clear
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What are the parts of a paragraph?
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main idea, topic sentence, supporting sentences, clincher sentence.
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To be a paragraph, a group of sentences must meet three requirements…
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(1) it must be about only one topic, (2) it must state only one main idea, (3) all of it sentences must be directly related to that main idea
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Main Idea
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the most important or central thought of a paragraph
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Topic Sentence
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states the main idea of the paragraph
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Supporting Sentences
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other sentences in the paragraph that give specific information that supports the main idea and the topic sentence
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Where is the topic sentence usually located in a paragraph?
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the first sentence
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Clincher Sentence
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a concluding sentence that restates the main idea in different words, summarize the details given, or suggest a specific action.
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Unity
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every sentence in a paragraph should directly support the main idea in the topic sentence
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Coherence
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the ideas in a paragraph should be arranged in a clear order and smoothly connected
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Chronological Order
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Time order- the natural way of telling a story is to mention each event in the order in which it happened.- the order of time. Chronological order is also used to explain how to carry out a process.
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Spatial Order
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Location order- makes clear where the parts of a scene are (to picture where each object is)
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Comparison and Contrast Order
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ideas may be arranged in an order that shows comparison (show how two or more people, places, or things are alike) or contrast (shows how two or more people, places, or things are different)
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Direct References
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words and phrases that remind the reader of something mentioned earlier in the paragraph. They maybe pronouns, key words and phrases, or rewordings
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Transitional Expressions
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show how ideas are related to one another
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Transitional Expressions to show Chronological Order
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after, afterward, before, eventually, finally, first (second, etc.), later, meanwhile, next, now, presently, soon
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Transitional Expressions to show Spatial Order
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above, across, ahead, around, behind, below, beyond, here, in front of, inside, in the distance, near, next to, outside, to the right (left)
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Transitional Expressions to link similar Ideas/add additional information
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again, also, and, another, besides, for example, for instance, furthermore, in addition, moreover, similarly, too
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Transitional Expressions to indicate Cause, Purpose, or Result
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as, as a result, because, consequently, for, for this reason, hence, since, so, then, therefore, thus
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What are the four types of paragraphs?
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Narrative, Description, Expository, Persuasive
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What is the purpose to of a Narrative paragraph?
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to tell a brief story
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What is the purpose of a Descriptive paragraph?
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to describe using concrete details (things you can touch or see) and sensory details (appealing to the senses-sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell)
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What is the purpose of an Expository paragraph?
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to explain or give information using facts and statistics, with examples, with the details of a process, or with a combination of these methods
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What is the purpose of a persuasive paragraph?
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to persuade; the topic sentence states the writers opinion and the supporting sentences give reasons, statements that explain the opinion. Each reason is supported by evidence, such as facts, statistics, or examples
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What are the two steps to understanding a paragraph?
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(1) finding the subject (2) finding the main idea
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Where can the Subject be found?
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the title or heading, the first sentence, or any key or repeated words or name
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How can you find the Main Idea?
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figure out what the writer is saying about the subject; the most important thing the writer wants you to know
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In addition to being found in the first sentence, can a Main Idea be found in the last sentence also?
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yes, writers sometimes prefer to write by showing several examples or details and then giving the main idea in the last sentence
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What is an “implied” main idea?
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Instead of being placing the main idea in the first or last sentence, authors sometimes don’t directly state the main in one sentence; they imply it. The main idea comes from parts of many sentences
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Case-Effect Order
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the writer begins with the cause and moves to the effects or begins with effects and the explains the cause
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Order of Importance
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the writer begins with the most important idea and moves to the least important idea. Or, the writer can begin with examples and details and build up to a larger idea
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Classification Order
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the writer tries to group things to show broad similarities. Writers often need to name categories to make it clear how one group is alike or different from another
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Transitional Expressions used to clarify
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for instance, in other words
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Transitional Expressions to conclude or summarize
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finally, lastly, as a result, therefore, to sum up, all in all, in conclusion, because
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Transitional Expressions to emphasize a point
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again, truly, to repeat, in fact, especially, to emphasize, for this reason
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Transitional Expressions to compare two things
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likewise, like, as, also, while, similarly, in the same way
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Transitional Expressions to contrast things (show differences)
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but, however, still, yet, although, otherwise, on the other hand, even though

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