Sex and Gender

Unit 9.1
Differences Between Sex and Gender

Distinguish between primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Primary sex characteristics – a vagina or a penis and other organs related to reproduction.
Secondary sex characteristics – physical distinctions between males and females not directly connected to reproduction.

Distinguish between sex and gender.
Sex refers to the biological characteristics that distinguish males and females. Gender refers to learned behaviors called masculinity and femininity.

Gender
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity

Sex
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primary and secondary sex characteristics

The penis and the vagina are examples of
a. primary sex characteristics
b. secondary sex characteristics
c. changing expectations
d. biological constructions of sexuality
primary sex characteristics

At puberty, Mary developed breasts and her hips grew larger. This is an example of
a. primary sex characteristics
b. secondary sex characteristics
c. sex
d. gender
secondary sex characteristics

At puberty, Joe’s voice became much lower and his thin arms began to show more muscle. This is an example of
a. primary sex characteristics
b. secondary sex characteristics
c. environmental factors bringing earlier maturation
d. boys’ greater strength
secondary sex characteristics

The term sex refers to characteristics that are
a. learned
b. inherited
c. demonstrated by some people, but not by others
d. banned in many countries
inherited

The term gender refers to characteristics that are
a. learned
b. inherited
c. demonstrated by some people, but not by others
d. banned in many countries
learned

Mary, age 8, likes to dress up in her mother’s dress and carry her purse. This is an example of
a. sex
b. gender
c. primary sex characteristics
d. secondary sex characteristics
gender

Joe will play with his little sister at home, even putting her in her little stroller and pushing her around the living room. If his friends come over, he won’t do this. This is an example of
a. sex
b. gender
c. primary sex characteristics
d. secondary sex characteristics
gender

Mary likes to jump rope with the girls. Joe likes to play soccer with the boys. This is an example of
a. sex
b. gender
c. primary sex characteristics
d. secondary sex characteristics
gender

From the photo, “Standards of Gender,” you can see that gender, what is considered masculine or feminine,
a. is inborn, separating males and females into distinct groups
b. does not exist
c. is probably no different than what the term sex refers to
d. varies around the world
varies around the world

Unit 9.2
Human Behavior: Biological or Social Factors?

Summarize the dominant position in sociology on genetic factors in human behavior.
Social factors are the primary reason people do what they do. Any biological predispositions of humans to behavior are overlaid with culture.

Summarize the minority position in sociology on genetic factors in human behavior.
Men dominate all societies of the world because of the biological predisposition.

Give the basic finding on the Vietnam Veterans Study and explain how social factors override testosterone.
As boys, the higher-testosterone men got into more trouble with parents, teachers, and the law. As adults, they were more likely to use hard drugs, get into fights, have low-status jobs, have more sexual partners, have affairs, and get divorced. Higher-testosterone men from higher social classes did less of these things.

Explain why sociologists focus on social factors rather than on biological factors in human behavior.
Social factors override biology.

The dominant position in society is
a. people’s behavior is like that of rats, penguins, and spiders
b. the genes we inherit from our parents determine our behavior
c. women are better than men at being fair in politics
d. social factors are the primary reason people do what they do
social factors are the primary reason people do what they do

This statement best describes the position of sociologists who acknowledge some biological factors in human behavior other than reproduction
a. biology has nothing to do with human behavior
b. biology has almost everything to do with human behavior
c. culture shapes our biological predispositions
d. there are a lot of factors we must consider in human behavior, including the Zodiac
culture shapes our biological predispositions

According to what you’ve learned thus far, this statement is true
a. in the matter of nature versus nurture, sociologist prefer the nurture explanation
b. biology is the primary reason that people do what they do
c. biology factors override our social experience
d. men are born with a weaker drive than women to dominate social relations, but their socialization overpowers this inborn tendency
n the matter of nature versus nurture, sociologist prefer the nurture explanation

The minority position in sociology is
a. men are born with a greater drive than women to dominate social life
b. men are born with a weaker drive than women to dominate life, but their socialization overpower this tendency
c. women are about the same as men when it comes to being fair in politics
d. men and women have biological predispositions that lead to them being separated into doing “women’s work” and “men’s work”
men are born with a greater drive than women to dominate social life

Sociologist Steven Goldberg takes the position that men are born with a greater drive to dominate social life. For evidence, he points out that men dominate all societies around the world. He says this is because men are more willing “to sacrifice the rewards of other motivations – the desire for attraction, health, family life, safety, relaxation, vacation, and the like – in order to attain dominance and status.” Most sociologists
a. disagree with Goldberg
b. agree with Goldberg
c. aren’t sure what position to take
d. say that it is time to move on to more important research questions
disagree with Goldberg

In the Vietnam Veteran’s Study, researchers found that men with high testosterone
a. got into more fights than did men with low testosterone
b. were more likely to get killed in combat than were men with low testosterone
c. were more stratified than were men with low testosterone
d. confused the researchers, and they concluded that human behavior is so diverse (varied) that we cannot come up with any solid generalizations
got into more fights than did men with low testosterone

In the Vietnam Veteran’s Study, researchers found that compared with men with low testosterone, men with high testosterone were
a. not sick as often
b. more likely to play football and other competitive games
c. more satisfied with life
d. more likely to mistreat their wives
more likely to mistreat their wives

In the Vietnam Veteran’s Study, researchers found that compared with men with low testosterone, men with high testosterone were
a. more likely to cheat on their wives
b. more likely to marry Vietnamese women
c. less likely to make telephone calls home to their families
d. more likely to vote
more likely to cheat on their wives

In the Vietnam Veteran’s Study, researchers found that compared with high-testosterone men from higher social classes, high-testosterone men from lower social classes were more likely to
a. have problems sleeping
b. do well in school
c. mistreat their wives
d. claim biology as a defense for their actions
mistreat their wives

The most accurate conclusion of the sociological position on biological and social factors in human behavior would be
a. biological and social factors are about equal in importance
b. biology is important, but social factors override it
c. biology sorts people into two types, and the rest follows
d. people with more biology are more likely to get in trouble with the law
biology is important, but social factors override it

Unit 9.3
How Females Became a Minority Group

Patriarchy
a society in which men-as-a-group dominate women-as-a-group; authority is vested in males

Explain why the term minority group applies to women.
Minority group refers to people who are discriminated against on the basis of physical or cultural characteristics, regardless of their numbers.

Explain how females became a minority group.
The origin is lost in history. The two main theories are based on human reproduction and hand-to-hand combat.

Summarize two theories of the origins of patriarchy.
The first is that having babies limited women’s activities. With men doing the hunting, trading, and warfare, they took over society. The second is that because men are stronger, they did the fighting and women became their reward.

What is the circular system of thought used to prove male “superiority?”
Men dominate society because they are superior, and they know they are superior because they dominate society.

Historian and feminist, Gerda Lerner (1986) concluded that there
a. are two societies where woman-as-a-group have decision-making power over men-as-a-group
b. are only a few societies where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men-as-a-group
c. are many societies where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men-as-a-group
d. is not a single society where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men-as-a-group
is not a single society where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men-as-a-group

Around the world, gender is the primary division between people. Every society sorts men and women into separate groups and gives them different access to property, power, and prestige. These divisions
a. always favor men-as-a-group
b. sometimes favor men-as-a-group
c. usually favor men-as-a-group
d. usually favor women-as-a-group
always favor men-as-a-group

Applying the term minority group to women
a. does not make sense because there are more women than men
b. is rejected by sociologists because there are more women than men
c. is done by sociologists because the term has nothing to do with numbers
d. is a custom primarily among sociologists in Asia
is done by sociologists because the term has nothing to do with numbers

Some analysts speculate that in hunting and gathering societies, women and men
a. were social equals
b. were more likely to hunt than to gather
c. had fewer children than tribal groups do today
d. found more satisfaction in nature than people do in modern societies
were social equals

This statement refers to the central idea of the main theory of the origin of patriarchy
a. with a child at her breast or in her uterus, or one carried on her hip or on her back, women were not able to move as quickly as men or leave the base camp as long as men could
b. the challenges of post-menopausal life created divisions between the sexes that ultimately resulted in gender cleavages
c. because women are weaker than men, they took over child care and home-making responsibilities, while the men took over the hunting
d. male-female divisions are part of nature, occurring universally throughout the world
with a child at her breast or in her uterus, or one carried on her hip or on her back, women were not able to move as quickly as men or leave the base camp as long as men could

According to the main theory of patriarchy, the source(s) of power of tribal men was (were) their
a. greater strength by which they subdued women
b. larger brain, which allowed them to dominate women
c. genetic predisposition to violence
d. weapons, items of trade, and knowledge gained from contact with other groups
weapons, items of trade, and knowledge gained from contact with other groups

Anthropologist Marvin Harris (1977) proposed a second theory of the origin of patriarchy. His theory centers on the need for hand-to-hand combat for survival in tribal groups. Because most men are stronger than most women, he says that men became the warriors, and women became
a. the ones who made the weapons
b. those who did the encouraging
c. the reward that enticed men to risk their lives in battle
d. weaker, as they didn’t do the activities that build strength that the men did as they prepared for combat
the reward that enticed men to risk their lives in battle

Whatever the origin of men’s dominance of society, this circular system of thought evolved
a. men came to think of themselves as inherently superior – based on the evidence that they dominated society
b. trade was considered essential to the welfare of the group, and this requirement that men spend more time away from home
c. the care of children was seen as essential to the welfare of the group, and more resources were given this task
d. women increasingly dropped out of public life as they saw men take over trade and warfare
men came to think of themselves as inherently superior – based on the evidence that they dominated society

Patriarchy is always accompanied by cultural supports designed to justify male dominance. One of these supports is
a. the monuments to war often found in public parks
b. designating certain activities as “not appropriate” for women
c. the traditional view of keeping men away from home-making activities
d. making weapons for war
designating certain activities as “not appropriate” for women

Male dominance of contemporary societies is
a. seen by social analysts as necessary if we are survive terrorism and potential wars
b. likely to get stronger as global capitalism becomes more dominant
c. a continuation of a millennia-old pattern whose origin is lost in history
d. likely to decrease as we experience global warming
a continuation of a millennia-old pattern whose origin is lost in history

Unit 9.4
Fighting Back: The Rise of Feminism

Feminism
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal; also organized activities on behalf of this principle

Explain what it means to say that a husband and wife used to be legally one person.
Wives (and single women) could not vote, buy property in their own name, make legal contracts, or serve on juries.

What does “using cultural supports to justify dominance” mean?
The social institutions – the law, religion, politics, business, education, and the family – teach children their “proper” roles as boys and girls and what they should expect as adults.

Summarize the three waves of feminism.
First Wave: late 1800s and early 1900s: won women’s right to vote.
Second Wave: 1960s and continuing: primary concerns – working conditions and sexual harassment.
Third Wave: 1990s and continuing: primary concerns – conditions of women around the world, changed values at work, and sexuality.

To say that a husband and wife used to be legally one person refers to all these except
a. property was in the name of the husband only
b. women had to get written permission from their mothers to marry, and they had to show this to a judge, who then granted written authorization for the marriage
c. only the husband, not the wife, could make legal contracts
d. only the husband, not the wife, could vote
women had to get written permission from their mothers to marry, and they had to show this to a judge, who then granted written authorization for the marriage

This statement best summarizes what is meant to say that men use “cultural supports” to maintain their dominance.
a. feminists have been trying to change the social institutions because they disagree with both their philosophy and approach
b. men were never certain that their dominance was firm enough, and they constantly were on the alert for ways to strengthen it
c. although some women were satisfied with their positions in society, and even viewed it as morally right, others agitated for social reform
d. the social institutions – the law, religion, politics, business, education, and the family – teach children their “proper” roles as boys and girls, and what they should expect as adults
the social institutions – the law, religion, politics, business, education, and the family – teach children their “proper” roles as boys and girls, and what they should expect as adults

Feminism is defined in the text as
a. an attempt to take social control from men
b. the goal of equality in pay, medical care, and maintaining hard-won rights
c. the breaking down of barriers that prevent men and women from having equal social interaction
d. the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted
the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted

In the 1800s and early 1900s, feminists were called
a. the women who wanted to change the world
b. the hands that rock the cradle – and the world
c. suffragists
d. the left-wing militants of Washington, D.C.
suffragists

What happened after women picketed the White House for six months in 1917?
a. winter came and they had to give up
b. the police locked arms, formed a barrier around the White House that prevented the women from approaching it
c. they were arrested and sent to prison
d. they won a new law and in triumph called an end to their protests
they were arrested and sent to prison

There are three waves of feminism. The goal of the conservatives in the first wave, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, was to
a. strike down the laws that made it illegal for women to drive
b. make same-sex marriages legal
c. get the President to announce in a State of the Union address to Congress that gender inequality was a problem
d. win the vote for women
win the vote for women

The text illustrates gender lessons that school readers taught children in the 1950s and 1960s. A main gender lesson girls were taught in these readers were to
a. be a good student
b. feed the animals
c. help mom with housework
d. be attractive to boys
help mom with housework

There are three waves of feminism. Until the second wave that began in the 1960s, most women thought of work as
a. a temporary activity to fill the time between completing high school ( and, for a few, completing college) and getting married
b. their contribution to making society a better place
c. a disagreeable activity that interfered with their broader vision of improving society
d. wage slavery
a temporary activity to fill the time between completing high school ( and, for a few, completing college) and getting married

There are three waves of feminism. During the second wave that began in the 1960s, women shifted their reference group. This statement refers to
a. fewer women wanted to get married, which has resulted in more cohabitation and a lower birth rate
b. women rejecting negative stereotypes of femininity
c. women thinking of jobs as careers and challenging the greater privileges men had at work
d. women wanted to adopt “male” values
women thinking of jobs as careers and challenging the greater privileges men had at work

There are three waves of feminism. The third and current wave of feminism has the broad goal of gaining gender equality in all areas of life. This goal has three main aspects. Which of these is not one of these aspects?
a. a criticism of the values that dominate work and society
b. the removal of impediments to women’s love and sexual pleasure
c. a greater focus on the problems of women in the Least Industrialized Nations
d. locating weaknesses in social institutions and developing strategies for exploiting them
locating weaknesses in social institutions and developing strategies for exploiting them

Unit 9.5
Global Inequality in the World of Work

Gender Discrimination
people being given or denied resources and privileges on the basis of their sex; also called sexual discrimination

What does the “sex typing” of work mean?
Associating some activities with men and other activities with women.

Summarize the basic findings from Murdock’s survey of work and gender in 324 societies around the world.
The work that one society considers “women’s work” can be considered “men’s work” in another society. The one exception is metal working.

Explain why anatomy is not destiny when it comes to work.
In one society, a certain type of work is assigned to women; in another society, that same work is assigned to men.

State the basic principle about gender and the prestige of work.
Greater prestige is given to male activities – regardless of what those activities are.

The phrase “sex typing of work” refers to
a. associating some work (such as cooking and taking care of cattle) with one sex or the other
b. giving explanations to determine if someone is masculine or feminine enough for a particular type of work
c. having sex at work
d. Hollywood’s practice of casting rugged men as leads in Western movies and glamorous, but weak, women as their romantic leads
associating some work (such as cooking and taking care of cattle) with one sex or the other

When George Murdock reviewed the reports of anthropologists on 324 societies around the world, he found that
a. the West is much fairer in the way it divides work
b. most anthropologists had not reported on how work is divided in the groups they studied
c. very few of the societies sex type work
d. all societies associate some work with men and other work with women
all societies associate some work with men and other work with women

From Murdock’s review of research on 324 societies, which statement is true?
a. in most societies, women do more work than men
b. in most societies, most hard or heavy work is assigned to men
c. work that one society considers “women’s work” can be considered “men’s work” in another society
d. the sex typing of work is undergoing fundamental change
work that one society considers “women’s work” can be considered “men’s work” in another society

In his review of research of 324 societies, Murdock found that three types of work are usually considered “men’s work” – not always, but generally. These are
a. hunting lions, making traps, and stalking enemies
b. making weapons, pursuing sea mammals, and hunting
c. fishing, lumbering, and mining
d. farming, exploring, and fighting enemies
making weapons, pursuing sea mammals, and hunting

In his review of research of 324 societies, Murdock found that four types of work are usually considered “women’s work” – not always, but generally. These are
a. cooking, making clothing, carrying water, and grinding grain
b. taking care of cattle, taking care of goats, cooking, and cleaning
c. supervising children, canoe making, pottery making, and making fishing nets
d. food storage, doing laundry, cleaning fish, and preserving animal hides
cooking, making clothing, carrying water, and grinding grain

From Murdock’s review of work around the world, we can conclude that
a. in most societies, women do more work than men
b. most hard or heavy work is assigned to men
c. anatomy is not destiny
d. child care should be divided more evenly between husband and wife
anatomy is not destiny

From the photo essay on women and work in India, you can see that women in India
a. do about the same work as women do in the United States
b. don’t do much work outside the home
c. are limited primarily to what we would call “easy” work
d. do a lot of work that is usually considered “men’s work” in the United States
do a lot of work that is usually considered “men’s work” in the United States

Sociologists have discovered this principle regarding work and prestige.
a. greater prestige is given to activities that involve self-sacrifice
b. it is not the work that provides the prestige, but the sex with which the work is associated
c. people who fail to work receive such low prestige that few recover from the loss
d. in tribal societies, taking care of goats brings low prestige
it is not the work that provides the prestige, but the sex with which the work is associated

When delivering babies was “women’s work,”
a. there were few male doctors
b. cabdrivers refused to pick up pregnant women for fear that they would deliver a baby in their cab
c. delivering babies brought low prestige
d. few babies survived
delivering babies brought low prestige

To expand their businesses, physicians, who at that time in our history were men, wanted to branch out into delivering babies. Because they did not know how to deliver babies, they
a. bribes midwives to sneak them into the bedroom where a woman was having a baby
b. simply gave up
c. hired midwives as instructors at the medical colleges
d. observed as their own wives gave birth and wrote reports for their colleagues
bribes midwives to sneak them into the bedroom where a woman was having a baby

Unit 9.6
Gender Inequality in the American Workplace

Gender Stereotypes
ideas or assumptions about how men and women “are”

Glass Ceiling
the most invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work

Summarize the gender pay gap.
Around the world, men average more pay than women. In the United States, full-time working women average 72% of what full-time working men earn.

Explain reasons for the gender pay gap.
There are three: Women are less likely to go into better-paying areas of work, gender discrimination, and the “child penalty.”

Explain what keeps the glass ceiling in place.
There are four: Overt discrimination, the “child penalty,” women being directed to “support” positions, and lack of effective mentors.

Comparing full-time female and male workers who graduate from college, over his lifetime the average man can expect to earn an additional
a. $250,000
b. $500,000
c. $700,000
d. $1,000,000
$700,000

In 1960, full-time working women averaged 61% of what full-time working men earned. After 50 years of trying to achieve equal pay, full-time working women now average this percentage of what full-time working men earn.
a. 72%
b. 82%
c. 92%
d. 102%
72%

Researchers have found several causes for the gender pay gap. Which of these is not one of those causes?
a. men are more likely to go into better-paying areas of work, such as engineering, while women are more likely to go into lower-paying areas of work, such as teaching
b. gender discrimination
c. the “child penalty” – women miss out on work experience and opportunities while they care for children
d. women don’t work as hard as men
women don’t work as hard as men

For their first job after college, men, on average, are offered
a. higher starting salaries than women
b. lower starting salaries than women
c. the same average starting salaries as women
d. lower salaries in teaching but higher salaries in engineering
higher starting salaries than women

Of the nation’s top 500 corporations (the Fortune 500), women head
a. 12
b. 82
c. 112
d. 212
12

The term glass ceiling refer to
a. the different starting salaries offered to men and women who graduate from college
b. the tendency of women to quit their jobs or to go to part-time work after they marry
c. the mostly invisible barriers that prevent women from reaching the executive suite
d. the difficulty women have in getting adequate child care, which holds them back at work
the mostly invisible barriers that prevent women from reaching the executive suite

The “pipelines” that lead to being promoted to the top positions of a company are in
a. marketing, sales, and production
b. the support roles
c. human resources and public relations
d. advertising
marketing, sales, and production

One reason the glass ceiling is so powerful is that
a. men don’t want to compete with women
b. women tend to be seen as being good at “support” but less capable than men at leadership, so they are steered to human resources and public relations
c. the laws regarding equal pay are not enforced
d. women, though few want to admit it, are less capable than men
women tend to be seen as being good at “support” but less capable than men at leadership, so they are steered to human resources and public relations

One reason the glass ceiling is so powerful is that women
a. are more competitive than men
b. have a covert preference to be home-makers
c. lack mentors – successful executives who take an interest in them and teach them the ropes
d. don’t make as good leaders as men do
lack mentors – successful executives who take an interest in them and teach them the ropes

All of these are true except one. The women who are breaking through the glass ceiling are women who
a. have a fierce competitive spirit
b. are willing to give up sleep and recreation for the sake of career advancement
c. have learned to play by “men’s rules,” developing a style that makes men comfortable
d. have hundreds who take over most of the household tasks
have hundreds who take over most of the household tasks

Unit 9.7
Sexual Harassment

Sexual Harassment
the abuse of one’s position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone

Define sexual harassment.
Unwelcome sexual attention that can affects a person’s job or school performance or create a hostile environment.

Explain how the perception of social structure was essential to the development of the term sexual harassment.
From seeing the problem in personal terms, a man here or there doing obnoxious things, to viewing the underlying problem as men using their position of authority to pressure women to have sex.

Explain how the term sexual harassment has changed the perception of behavior.
People are now more apt to perceive a supervisor who makes sexual advances to a worker not as sexual attraction but as a misuse of authority.

Sexual harassment refers to
a. sex games at work and school
b. the laws that provide punishment for illegal sex acts at work or school
c. women who are not interested in sex getting offended when a man makes a sexual advance
d. unwelcome sexual attention that can affect a person’s job or school performance or create a hostile environment
unwelcome sexual attention that can affect a person’s job or school performance or create a hostile environment

Sexual harassment was not recognized as a problem until the 1970s because
a. there was little sex going on at that time, especially at work
b. the laws of that time were quite explicit, and the punishment for harassment was severe
c. women of that period were much more welcoming of sexual advances than women are today
d. before this, women considered unwanted sexual comments, touches, looks, and pressure to have sex to be a personal matter
before this, women considered unwanted sexual comments, touches, looks, and pressure to have sex to be a personal matter

Underlying the development of the term sexual harassment is this essential change
a. with the prodding of feminists, women began to perceive unwanted sexual advances at work and school to be part of a structural problem
b. fewer men used their positions of authority to pressure women to have sex
c. the behavior changed, but the perception did not
d. men and women began to view unwanted sexual advances at work and school as undesirable
with the prodding of feminists, women began to perceive unwanted sexual advances at work and school to be part of a structural problem

With many women in positions of authority today
a. sexual harassment has become mostly a thing of the past
b. women, too, have become sexual harassers
c. men have become much more careful about how they approach women sexually
d. the laws of sexual harassment no longer apply
women, too, have become sexual harassers

Unit 9.8
Gender Inequality in Everyday Life and Health Care

Explain how statements made during the training of soldiers and in sports illustrate the devaluation of femininity.
Boys and men insult under performers by referring to them in feminine terms or calling them girls.

Explain how gender inequality can be a life-and-death matter in the practice of medicine.
Women are more likely to die in coronary bypass surgery because doctors wait until a woman’s heart disease is more advanced than a man’s before recommending surgery.

In everyday life, the devaluation of femininity is often
a. a background assumption, so taken for granted that it is largely invisible
b. discussed by columnists, sometimes even make the front page of newspapers
c. part of ordinary discussions over coffee
d. perceived as something that we have to get rid of
a background assumption, so taken for granted that it is largely invisible

In everyday life, masculinity often
a. is exchanged with femininity
b. symbolizes strength and success
c. is perceived as a problem to be overcome
d. presents a challenge for sports coaches
symbolizes strength and success

In everyday life, femininity is often
a. a planned device
b. part of the dynamic wardrobe of cultural attainments
c. perceived in terms of weakness and lack of accomplishments
d. a way that men seek to cover their weaknesses
perceived in terms of weakness and lack of accomplishments

In training soldiers, officers often insult the performance of their trainees by saying they
a. need to go back to school
b. should beef up more
c. are performing like girls
d. look like kids
are performing like girls

In sports, coaches insult players and players insult one another by saying that someone is acting like
a. he or she doesn’t know what is going on
b. an idiot
c. a woman or girl
d. a kid
a woman or girl

Regarding the insults in sports and among soldiers that represent gender inequality, Stockard and Johnson pointed out, “There is no comparable phenomenon among women, for young girls do not insult each other by calling each other
a. a dog.”
b. dumb.”
c. clumsy.”
d. a man.”
a man.”

Medical researchers found that the death rates of women during coronary bypass surgery were higher than those of men. The reason was that
a. The women were afraid of surgery and kept postponing it
b. Doctors were ten times more likely to give men exercise stress tests and radioactive heart scans , which allowed them to have surgery before their heart disease became more advanced
c. Doctors were fearful of being sued for malpractice by women who would exaggerate their heart symptoms, so they kept postponing the women’s surgery
d. The women were less likely to have insurance
Doctors were ten times more likely to give men exercise stress tests and radioactive heart scans , which allowed them to have surgery before their heart disease became more advanced

That the death rates of women during coronary bypass surgery were higher than those of men is an example of
a. persistent discrimination
b. unintended discrimination
c. blatant discrimination
d. improper teaching in our medical schools
unintended discrimination

When the reason for the higher death rates of women during coronary bypass surgery were publicized – that physicians were referring women for surgery later than the men – what happened?
a. the news shocked the nation, and the medical profession made fundamental changes in the training of physicians
b. the U.S. Senate held hearings, calling some of the most well-known doctors to testify
c. the death rates of women during coronary bypass surgery dropped to almost the same as the men’s rate
d. Not much – the problem continues
Not much – the problem continues

The author suggests that the higher death rate of of women during coronary bypass surgery are the consequences of
a. stereotyping of the sexes in ways that are below our level of awareness
b. blatant and unconscionable discrimination
c. inadequate training in our medical schools
d. the masculine orientation of the medical profession
stereotyping of the sexes in ways that are below our level of awareness

Unit 9.9
Violence Against Women

Gendered Violence
violence directed by one sex against the other

What are suttee and “honor killings” and how are they examples of gendered violence?
Suttee is burning a living widow with the body of her dead husband. “Honor killing” refers to relatives killing a woman who has brought them shame. Both are directed by men against women.

Summarize the general patterns of rape in the United States, including the most common age of victims, frequency of acquaintance rape, and the reasons so few victims of date rape report the crime.
The typical rape victim is 16 to 19 years old, and the average rapist is someone the victim knows. About 1.7% of female college students have been raped during the past six months. Reasons for not reporting the rape: uncertainty, feeling responsible, embarrassment, and fear.

What is the gendered pattern in murder?
Of all killers, 90% are men. Of all victims, one-fifth are women.

Explain why it is difficult to break gendered violence.
Violence is associated with masculinity.

The term gendered violence refers to violence that
a. is directed by one sex against the other
b. has no gender (it has been degenderized)
c. is forced upon someone
d. exists in the past, but today has disappeared or has only remnants left
is directed by one sex against the other

The term suttee refers to
a. a canopy placed over bodies as they are burned in India
b. the firewood, built to precise specifications, lit when bodies are burned in India
c. a past practice in India of burning a living widow along with the body of her dead husband
d. widows in India having to wear black clothing until they either remarry or die
a past practice in India of burning a living widow along with the body of her dead husband

The term honor killings refers to
a. receiving honor for killing, such as medals in war
b. killing for the purpose of revenge
c. killing that is done by honorable people
d. male relatives killing a woman who had brought disgrace to the family
male relatives killing a woman who had brought disgrace to the family

What threat to a families honor is so severe that the men do “honor killings?” The usual reason is
a. sex outside of marriage
b. that the victim committed robbery or some other felony
c. that the individual was extremely sick and had little chance of getting well
d. to please the mother
sex outside of marriage

About 1 of every 1,000 girls and women in the United States between the ages of 12 and 50 is raped each year. Despite this high number, women
a. take few precautions against being raped
b. refuse to carry guns
c. are safer now than they were ten and twenty years ago – the rape rate then was higher than today
d. who talk to their friends and listen to the news know that the rape rate is much higher than this
are safer now than they were ten and twenty years ago – the rape rate then was higher than today

Although any woman can be a victim of sexual assault – the victims include babies and elderly women – the typical victim is
a. 12 to 15 years old
b. 16 to 19 years old
c. 19 to 25 years old
d. 25 to 35 years old
16 to 19 years old

According to the text, women are
a. most likely to be assaulted by a relative
b. most afraid of being attacked by someone they meet online
c. more likely to be attacked by someone they know than by a stranger
d. more likely to be raped at home than at any other location
more likely to be attacked by someone they know than by a stranger

Only about 5% of victims of date (acquaintance) rape report the assault to the police. Those who did not report the assault gave these reasons – except this one
a. they felt sorry for the individual who attacked them
b. they felt partially responsible for the attack
c. they felt embarrassed
d. they were not sure that a crime had taken place
they felt sorry for the individual who attacked them

When women are murdered, about what percentage die at the hands of men?
a. 25%
b. 40%
c. 70%
d. 90%
90%

The author says that there is no magic bullet for the problem of gendered violence, but to be effective, any solution must
a. stop men from killing so many women
b. get women to take self-defensive measures, perhaps even arm themselves
c. break the connection between violence and masculinity
d. take into account that we have violent video games
break the connection between violence and masculinity

Unit 9.10
The Changing Face of Politics

Why could women take political control of the United States?
Eight million more women than men are of voting age, and more women than men vote in the U.S. national elections.

State how extensively the U.S. Senate has been a political organization of men.
Since 1789 almost 2,000 men have served in the U.S. Senate, but only 38 women have served, including the 17 current Senators.

Summarize the gender change in U.S. politics.
The growing prominence of women in politics is indicated by women being elected Speaker of the House, running for president, and being the vice-presidential nominee of a major political party.

Gender inequality is
a. accidental
b. a hit-or-miss affair
c. part of how society’s institutions work together
d. hard to study because it is changing so rapidly
part of how society’s institutions work together

This is why women could take control of the United States
a. The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives are vulnerable because of eligibility rules passed about 10 years ago
b. Female candidates have received tutoring from previous office holders and skilled political consultants
c. There is nothing in the U.S. Constitution that would prevent this from happening
d. Eight million more women than men are voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections
Eight million more women than men are voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections

Since 1789, almost 2,000 men have served in the U.S. Senate. During this time, how many women have served in the Senate?
a. 42
b. 127
c. 211
d. 398
42

Only one African American woman has ever been elected to the U.S. Senate. How many Latina or Asian American women have been elected to the Senate?
a. 0
b. 2
c. 4
d. 8

In 2002, Nancy Pelosi was elected by he colleagues as minority leader of the House of Representatives. Five years later, in 2007, she was chosen as Speaker of the House. Before this, how many women had served as minority leader of the House of Representatives and the Speaker of the House?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 3
d. 5

The author says that it is only a matter of time before a woman is elected President of the United States. In addition to women having achieved high political office, having come close to becoming the presidential nominee, and being chosen by a major political party as the vice-president nominee, the author also states that
a. the schools are stressing greater gender equality
b. a major study shows that women hold greater wealth than men
c. more women are becoming corporate executives and lawyers
d. men are so disgusted with the current political situation that they are willing to give women a try
more women are becoming corporate executives and lawyers

Any effective solution to reduce violence against women in the United States must first _____.
a. incarcerate violent men for longer periods of time
b. break the connections between violence and masculinity
c. make physical defense classes mandatory for all women
d. make it illegal to manufacture video games that depict violence against women
break the connections between violence and masculinity

Symbolic interactionists believe that the social value of the elderly in America _____ when the economy shifted being agricultural to industrial.
a. increased
b. decreased
c. remained the same
d. was totally eliminated
decreased

Female circumcision is a custom in some societies. Feminists believe that this practice is _____.
a. a ritual designed to intensify female desire
b. a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality
c. functional for the society where this custom is practiced
d. a ritual to enhance female attractiveness
a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality

A comparative analysis of the Tiwi and the Abkhasians illustrate that the meanings that people attach to aging _____.
a. are rather similar in most societies
b. are dependent entirely on diet and nutrition
c. are socially constructed
d. depend upon the individual personalities of the elderly
are socially constructed

Most sociologists believe that gender differences in behavior between men and women are, for the most part, _____.
a. learned
b. inherited
c. genetically determined
d. philosophical
learned

The majority of students graduating with a degree in library science are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of majors is primarily due to _____.
a. natural abilities caused by differences in sex
b. women being more empathetic
c. gender socialization
d. the prestige of being a librarian
gender socialization

Evidence in the Vietnam veterans’ study appears to support the idea that men who have higher levels of testosterone tend to be more aggressive and, as a consequence, have more problems. This pattern tends to vary, however, by _____.
a. social norms
b. social structure
c. social class
d. social role
social class

Sociologists classify women as a _____ because each society has set up barriers that prevent women from gaining equal access to power, property and prestige.
a. dominating group
b. class
c. subculture
d. minority group
minority group

Frederick Engels proposed that patriarchy developed in conjunction with _____.
a. the development of private property
b. matriarchy
c. patrilineal descent
d. palimony
the development of private property

Sex is based upon _____ characteristics that distinguish males from females, while gender refers to a(n) _____ characteristic.
a. mental; physical
b. biological; social
c. preferential; established
d. internal; external
biological; social

Murdock found that what was considered “women’s work” in one society was considered _____.
a. “child’s play” in every other society
b. “women’s work” in every other society
c. “men’s work” in some other society
d. “child’s play” in some other society
“men’s work” in some other society

Women who get to the top have necessarily had to _____.
a. bribe their way up
b. sacrifice a lot
c. sleep with the boss
d. show they can beat up the boss
sacrifice a lot

Feminists argue that sexual harassment happens because of _____.
a. the structure of society
b. individual perverts
c. bad bosses
d. women who bring such problems on themselves
the structure of society

During an Army-Navy football game, one of the coaches tells his players to stop prancing around on the field like a bunch of little sissies and get down to the business of making touchdowns. This exemplifies the devaluation of _____.
a. femininity
b. the coach
c. football
d. the military
femininity

In a well-known study of heart patients, it was shown that when men reported chest pain, doctors were _____ times likelier to follow up with tests and surgery for them than they were for women who reported the same thing.
a. 3
b. 5
c. 10
d. 12
10

The real reason patriarchy developed is _____.
a. that women thought men were better than they were
b. that women were looking for ways to empower their sons
c. that women were tired of being in charge
d. unclear
unclear

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out