Semester Exam

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Chemistry
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the study of matter and the changes it goes through.
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Intensive Properties
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property does not depend on amount of substance (boiling point, magnetic, color)
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Extensice Properties
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property that does depend on amount of substance (mass, volume)
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Physical Property
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property observed without changing the identity of substance
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Chemical Property
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properties observed as a chemical change occurs.
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Chemical Change
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new substance forms
Reactants ——> Products
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Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter
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matter cannot be created nor destroyed through ordinary chemical reactions.
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Physical Changes
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no new substance forms in the change
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Compound
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2 or more elements chemically bonded.
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Evaporation
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liquid –> gas (surface only)
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Boiling
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liquid –> gas (throughout the solution)
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Condensation
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gas –> liquid
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Freezing/Solidification
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liquid –> solid
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Melting
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solid –> liquid
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Sublimation
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solid –> gas
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Deposition
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gas –> solid
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Pure Substance
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substance with a fixed composition and same properties throughout.
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Mixture
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physical combination of substances.
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Element
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simplest pure substance.
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Atom
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smallest partical of an element that retains the properties of it.
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Molecule
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smallest partical of a compound that retains the properties of it.
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Heterogeneous
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a mixture with different properties throughout.
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Homogeneous
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a mixture with the same properties throughout.
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Columns on the Periodic Table
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Vertical (family, group)
IA – VIIIA : # of valence electrons (outer shell)
& have similar chemical properties.
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Rows on the Periodic Table
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horozontal (periods)
1 – 7 : not chemically similar.
but there are trends across.
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Alkali Metals
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IA
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Alkaline Earth Metals
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IIA
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Boron Family
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IIIA
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Carbon Family
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IVA
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Nitrogen Family
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VA
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Oxygen Family
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VIA
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Halogens Family
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VIIA
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Noble Gas Family
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VIIIA
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Metals
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good conductors
malleable
ductile
luster
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Nonmetals
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poor conductors
insulators
dull
brittle
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Exothermic
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energy is released
g -> l -> s
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Endothermic
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energy is absorbed
s -> l -> g
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Quantum Numbers
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n – # of shells
– row
– n=1-7
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Azimuthal #
Angular Momentum
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l – sub level
s=0
p=1
d=2
f=3
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Magnetic #
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m-orientation in space
m=1 _ _ _
m=2 _ _ _ _ _
m=3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
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Electromagnetic Radiation
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all forms of energy traveling through space as a wave.
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EMR Spectrum
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gamma x-rays UV Visible Light (VIBGYOR) Infared Microwave Radio
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Wavelength
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distance from crest to crest
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Frequency
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# of waves to pass a point in one second (1/sec, Hertz[Hz])
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Aufbau Principle
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electrons fill regions of lowest energy first
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Hund’s Rule
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each equal orbital recieves one e- before any recieve 2
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
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electrons in the same orbital will have opposite spin
e- will not hae the same 4 quantum #s
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Cation
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Oxidation
Reducing agent
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Anion
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Reduction
Oxidizing agent
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Electronegativity
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Ability to attract e-
Increases as it gets closers to F
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Nonpolar covalent
electronegativity
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0>0.3
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Polar covalent
Electronegativity
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0.3>1.7
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Ionic
Electronegativity
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anything greater than or equal to 1.7
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Ionization energy
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Energy needed to remove an e-
Increases the closer it gets to F
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Atomic radius
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Increases the farther it gets from F
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Leo says ger
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Loss of e- : oxidation
Gain of e- : reduction
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E=hV
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E is energy
h is plank’s constant 6.626×10^-34 Jsec
V is frequency
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C=?V
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C is speed of light 3.00×10^8 m/s
? is wavelength
V is frequency
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Synthesis RXN
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2–>1
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Decomposition RXN
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1–>2
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Single displacement RXN
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One switches (activity series)
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Double displacement RXN
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2 switch (water, precipitate)
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Combustion RXN
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+ O2 and creates CO2 and H2O

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