Semester Exam Flashcard

Chemistry
the study of matter and the changes it goes through.
Intensive Properties
property does not depend on amount of substance (boiling point, magnetic, color)
Extensice Properties
property that does depend on amount of substance (mass, volume)
Physical Property
property observed without changing the identity of substance
Chemical Property
properties observed as a chemical change occurs.
Chemical Change
new substance forms
Reactants ——> Products
Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter
matter cannot be created nor destroyed through ordinary chemical reactions.
Physical Changes
no new substance forms in the change
Compound
2 or more elements chemically bonded.
Evaporation
liquid –> gas (surface only)
Boiling
liquid –> gas (throughout the solution)
Condensation
gas –> liquid
Freezing/Solidification
liquid –> solid
Melting
solid –> liquid
Sublimation
solid –> gas
Deposition
gas –> solid
Pure Substance
substance with a fixed composition and same properties throughout.
Mixture
physical combination of substances.
Element
simplest pure substance.
Atom
smallest partical of an element that retains the properties of it.
Molecule
smallest partical of a compound that retains the properties of it.
Heterogeneous
a mixture with different properties throughout.
Homogeneous
a mixture with the same properties throughout.
Columns on the Periodic Table
Vertical (family, group)
IA – VIIIA : # of valence electrons (outer shell)
& have similar chemical properties.
Rows on the Periodic Table
horozontal (periods)
1 – 7 : not chemically similar.
but there are trends across.
Alkali Metals
IA
Alkaline Earth Metals
IIA
Boron Family
IIIA
Carbon Family
IVA
Nitrogen Family
VA
Oxygen Family
VIA
Halogens Family
VIIA
Noble Gas Family
VIIIA
Metals
good conductors
malleable
ductile
luster
Nonmetals
poor conductors
insulators
dull
brittle
Exothermic
energy is released
g -> l -> s
Endothermic
energy is absorbed
s -> l -> g
Quantum Numbers
n – # of shells
– row
– n=1-7
Azimuthal #
Angular Momentum
l – sub level
s=0
p=1
d=2
f=3
Magnetic #
m-orientation in space
m=1 _ _ _
m=2 _ _ _ _ _
m=3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Electromagnetic Radiation
all forms of energy traveling through space as a wave.
EMR Spectrum
gamma x-rays UV Visible Light (VIBGYOR) Infared Microwave Radio
Wavelength
distance from crest to crest
Frequency
# of waves to pass a point in one second (1/sec, Hertz[Hz])
Aufbau Principle
electrons fill regions of lowest energy first
Hund’s Rule
each equal orbital recieves one e- before any recieve 2
Pauli Exclusion Principle
electrons in the same orbital will have opposite spin
e- will not hae the same 4 quantum #s
Cation
Oxidation
Reducing agent
Anion
Reduction
Oxidizing agent
Electronegativity
Ability to attract e-
Increases as it gets closers to F
Nonpolar covalent
electronegativity
0>0.3
Polar covalent
Electronegativity
0.3>1.7
Ionic
Electronegativity
anything greater than or equal to 1.7
Ionization energy
Energy needed to remove an e-
Increases the closer it gets to F
Atomic radius
Increases the farther it gets from F
Leo says ger
Loss of e- : oxidation
Gain of e- : reduction
E=hV
E is energy
h is plank’s constant 6.626×10^-34 Jsec
V is frequency
C=?V
C is speed of light 3.00×10^8 m/s
? is wavelength
V is frequency
Synthesis RXN
2–>1
Decomposition RXN
1–>2
Single displacement RXN
One switches (activity series)
Double displacement RXN
2 switch (water, precipitate)
Combustion RXN
+ O2 and creates CO2 and H2O

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