Semester 2 Exam Review Flashcard

Binary Compounds
Compounds composed of two different elements
Nomenclature
Naming System
Oxyanions
Polyatomic ions that contain oxygen
Salt
An ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid
Monatomic Ions
Ions formed from a single atom
Formula Mass
The sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion
Empirical Formula
The symbols for the elements combined in a compound with subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound.
Molecular Formal
A formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
Polyatomic Ion
A charged group of covalently bonded atoms.
Electrolyte
A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current.
Aqueous Solution
(dissolved in water) also (aq)
Catalyst
Used to alter the rate of the reaction
Reversible Reaction
Chemical reaction in which the products re-form the original reactants.
Chemical Reaction
A reaction in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.
Mole Ratio
Conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction.
Molar Mass
The mass of one mole of a pure substance.
Actual Yield
The measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction
Theoretical Yield
The maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant.
Percent Yield
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100
Limiting Reactant
The reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine and the amount of the product that can form in a chemical reaction
Excess Reactant
The substance that is not used up completely in a reaction
Reaction Stoichiometry
Involves the mass relationships between reactants and the products in a chemical reaction
Composition Stoichiometry
Deals with the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
Diffusion
Such spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
Elastic Collision
No net loss of kinetic energy
Ideal Gas
An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
Effusion
Process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
Pressure
Force per unit area on a surface
Atmosphere of Pressure
Exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg
Pascal
Pressure exerted by a force of one Newton acting on an area of one square meter
Barometer
Device used to measure atmospheric pressure
Boyle’s Law
States that volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature (PV=k)
Charles Law
Illustrates the direct relationship between the volume of a gas and its temperature in kelvins (V=kT)
Combined Gas Law
Combines the previous relationships into the following mathematical expression (PV/T=k
Gas Laws
Simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and the amount of a gas
Combined Gas Law
Expresses the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
Avogadro’s Law
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
Ideal Gas Law
Mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles (PV=nRT)
Grahams Law of Effusion
Rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional
Solution
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phrase
Solvent
The dissolving medium in a solution
Solute
Substance dissolved in a solution
Colloids
Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures
Nonelectrolyte
Substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
Saturated Solution
Solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated Solution
Solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
Supersaturated Solution
Solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions
Solubility
The amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
Molarity
The number of moles in one liter of solution
Concentration
Measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solute or solution
Strong Electrolyte
Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well
Weak Electrolyte
Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly

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