Semester 1 Final Test Questions Flashcard

Chemistry
the study of the composition of matter
Organic Chemistry
the study of essentially all substances containing carbon
Inorganic Chemistry
specializes primarily in substances that do not contain carbon
Analytical Chemistry
is concerned with the composition of substances
Physical Chemistry
is concerned with theories and experiments that describe the behavior of chemicals
Biochemistry
is the study of hte chemitry of living organisms
Scientific Method
is one logical approach to the soulutionof scienctific problems
observation
using your senses to obtain information directly
Hypothesis
a proposed explanation or reason for what is observed
Experiment
a means to test a hypothesis
Theory
a broud and extensively tested explanation of why experiments give certain results
Scientific Law
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass
the amount of matter the object contains
Substance
Matter taht has a uniform and definite composition
Pyysical property
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition
Solid
matter that has a definate shape or volume
LIquid
a form of matter that flows and has a fixed volume and takes the shape of its container
Gas
matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container
vapor
the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temp.
Physical Change
a change which alters a given material with out changing its composition
Mixture
a phyysical blend of two or more substances
Heterogeneious mixture
a mixture that not uniform in composition
Homogeneous mixture
a mixutre that has a completely uniformed composition
soulutions
a homogeneous mixure
Phase
any part of a system with uniform composition and properties
distiollation
a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid
distillation
a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid
distillation
a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid
Elements
the simplest forms of matter that can exist under normal laboratory conditions
Compounds
substances that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical means
Chemical Symbol
The one or two letters that represent each element (on the periodic table)
Chemical Reaction
one or more substances change into new substances
Reactants
The starting substances
Products
substances formed by a chemical reaction
Chemical property
the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction and to form a new substance
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved
Qualitative measurements
give results in a descriptive non numerical form
Quanitative measurements
give results in a definite form, usually as numbers and units
scientific notation
a number written as a product of two numbers: a coefficient and 10 raised to a power
Accuracy
a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured
precision
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Accepted Value
the correct value based on reliable references
Experimental value
teh value measured in the lab
error
the difference between the accepted and the experimental value
Percent Error
the absolute value of the error divided by the accepted value and multiplied bye 100%
Significant Figures
the significant figured ina measurement include all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated
The international system of units(SI)
a revised version of the metric system
density
the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume

mass
D= —–
Volume

Specific Gravity
a comparison of the density of a substance with the density of a reference substance, ususally at the same temperature

density of a substance (g/cm3)
SG= ——————————
density or water (g/cm3)<-cm cubed

hydrometer
a device used to measure specific gravity
Temperature
determins the direction fo heat tranfer
Celsius scale
sets the freezing point of water at 0degrees celcius and the boiling point at 100 degrees celcius
Kelvin scale
freezing point of water is 273.15 kelvins boiling point is 373.15 kelvins
absolute zero
0 degrees on the kelvin scale is equal to -273.15 degrees C

K=C+273

C=K-273

Conversion factor
a ratio of equivalent maeasurements such as
100 cm 1 m
—— or —- =1
1 m 100 cm
Dimensional Analysis
a way to analyze and solve problems using the units or dimensions, or the measurements
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms
2.Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element
3.Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine with one another in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds
4.Cehmical reactions occure when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of one element, however, are never changed into atoms of anothere lement as a result of a chemical reaction
Atom
The smallest particle of an element tht retains the properties of that element
Electrons
negatively charged subatomic particles
Cathode ray
a beam which travels from the cathode to the anode
Proton
positively charged subatomic particles
Nuetrons
subatomic particles with on charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton
Atomic Number
the nuber of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
Mass Number
total nuber or protons nad neutrons in an atom
isotopes
atoms that have the same nuber of protons but different number of neutrons
atomic mass unit (atm)
one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Atomic Mass
a weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element
periods
horizantal rows in the periodic table
periodic law
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
group
vertical columns of elements in the periodic table
Representative elements
Group A elements ….the exhibit a wide range of both physical and chemical properties
metals
have a high electical conductvity and a high luster when clean …are ductile and malleable
alkali metals
group 1A elements
Alkaline earth metals
Group 2A elements…most of the remaining elementare are not Group A elements are are also metals
Transition metals and Inner transition metals
Group B elements…. Copper silver gold and iron are familiar transition metals
Transition metals and Inner transition metals
Group B elements…. Copper silver gold and iron are familiar transition metals
non metals
elements that are generally nonlustrous and that are generally poor conductors of electricity..some are gases at room temperature
Halogens
the nonmetals of group 7A and inclue chlorine and bromine
Noble gases
The non metals of group 0 sometiems called the inert gases because they undergo few chemical reactions
Metalloids
elements that boarder the step ladder line….. elements with properties that are intermediate between tehose of metals and nonmetals
Molecule
the smallest electically nuetral unit of a substance that still has the properties of the substance
molecular compound
compounds composed of molecules
Ions
atoms or groups of atoms thath ave a positive or negative charge
cation
any atom or group of atoms that has a a posivive charge
anions
atoms or group of atoms that have a negative charge
ionic compounds
compounds composed of cations and anions
monatomic ions
ions consisting of only one atom;ionic charges can often be determined by using the periodic table
polyatomic ions
tightly bound groups of atoms taht behvae as a unit and carry a charge… ex. sulfate
SO
4
Binary compounds
compounds composed of two elements
Ternary compound
a compound that contains atoms of three different elements

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member