scientific thinking

Biology is
the study of living things.
Thinking scientifically relies on
objective observation and experimentation
Science is self-correcting. This means that
science actively seeks to disprove its own theories and hypothesis.
What should you do when something you believe turns out to be wrong?
change your mind
You note a fuzzy growth on some of the gels in your incubator. What is the name given to this step of the scientific method?
observation.
which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method?
make observations.
Scientific study always begins with
observations.
Scientific data
are used to support or refute a hypothesis.
In a well-designed experiment
the prediction will be highly imporbable if the explanation is not true. The prediction will be highly probable if the explanation is true.
Engaging in aerobic activity three times each week will reduce cholesterol level
testable hypothesis
After generating a hypothesis, a scientist next
makes a prediction
a___ is a pill that looks identical to a pill that contains the active ingredient in a scientific trial, but contains no active ingredient itself.
placebo
Once a scientist has formulated a hypothesis that generates a testable prediction, she will
conduct a critical experiment
which of the following is the best way to state the relationship between “data” and results”
“data are the facts you collect from your experiment, while “results” are your interpretation of what the data mean.
If your hypothesis is rejected, then
you may still have learned something about the system you were testing.
If you conduct an experiment that rejects your hypothesis, then
the null hypothesis was a better fit to your data.
A scientific theory is one that
is the result of all scientific experiments
In science, theories tend to be_______ than hypotheses
broader in scope.
in controlled experiments
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant
In a randomized, controlled, double-blind study__
neither the experimenter nor the subject know whether the subject is in a control group or an experimental group.
An experimental condition applied to research subjects is called a___
treatment.
the placebo effect
is the frequently observed, poorly understood, phenomenon that people tend to respond favorably to any treatment.
which of the following is the best description of a control group in an experiment?
the control group is identical to each test group except for one variable.
which of the following is an important feature of the scientific method?
anyone should be able to repeat an experiment.
What is the best way for a scientist to address his/her own biases?
use careful control to minimize them
in a scientific study, the dependent variable is
a measurable entity whose value always fluctuates up and down, closely following changes in another variable.
in a line graph, the value of the independent variable is
represented on the x-axis
Statistical methods make it possible to
determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance
the setoff analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they gather is called
statistics
anecdotal evidence
can appear to reveal links between two phenomena that do not actually exist.
pseudoscience capitalizes on the belief shared by most people that
scientific thinking is a powerful method for learning about the world.
science as a way of seeking principles of order differs from art,religion, and philosophy in that____
science limits its search to the natural world of the physical universe