SCIENCE HUMAN GENETICS STUDY GUIDE

Meiosis
Process that creates sex cells. Consists of 2 cell divisions and results in 4 haploid cells.

Body Cells
46-somatic

Sex cells
23-meiosis

diploid
body cells- complete set of chromosomes

haploid
sex cells- half the number of chromosomes

Female Sex chromosomes
XX

Male Sex chromosomes
XY

sex-linked trait
Carried on the X chromosome, are recessive disorders, males are most often afflicted

Examples of a sex-linked trait
Hemophilia, Colored Blindness

Mutagen
substance that can cause a change in DNA

examples of a mutagen
Radiation, chemicals

4 BLOODTYPE GENES
A, B, AB, O

dominant bloodtypes
A, B

recessive bloodtypes
O

fertilization
sex cells combine

protein synthesis
process of making proteins

purebred
homozygous, consists of genes that are the same

hybrid
heterozygous, consists of genes that are different

genotype
genetic makeup represented by letters

phenotype
physical appearance of a trait

Gregor Mendel
discovered purebred/hybrid
grew pea plants, discovered inheritance patterns
discovered dominant and recessive traits