SCIENCE HUMAN GENETICS STUDY GUIDE

Meiosis
Process that creates sex cells. Consists of 2 cell divisions and results in 4 haploid cells.
Body Cells
46-somatic
Sex cells
23-meiosis
diploid
body cells- complete set of chromosomes
haploid
sex cells- half the number of chromosomes
Female Sex chromosomes
XX
Male Sex chromosomes
XY
sex-linked trait
Carried on the X chromosome, are recessive disorders, males are most often afflicted
Examples of a sex-linked trait
Hemophilia, Colored Blindness
Mutagen
substance that can cause a change in DNA
examples of a mutagen
Radiation, chemicals
4 BLOODTYPE GENES
A, B, AB, O
dominant bloodtypes
A, B
recessive bloodtypes
O
fertilization
sex cells combine
protein synthesis
process of making proteins
purebred
homozygous, consists of genes that are the same
hybrid
heterozygous, consists of genes that are different
genotype
genetic makeup represented by letters
phenotype
physical appearance of a trait
Gregor Mendel
discovered purebred/hybrid
grew pea plants, discovered inheritance patterns
discovered dominant and recessive traits