Schneider Paper(Onion)

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1) Individual 2) Interpersonal 3) Organizational 4) Environment
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What are the layers of the onion?
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The roots extend to the larger environment from which the organization is exposed to and from which they draw resources and provide output. The layers represent how the different levels are working together and are highly permeable.
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What do the roots and layers of the onion represent?
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1) People as individuals 2) People as interpersonal entities 3) People as keys to understanding the way organisations look and behave
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What are the three levels in which applied psychologists deal with human behavior?
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The standard or goal that is to be achieved.
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What is a criterion?
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To establish connections between individual differences and criterias and goals that are important for organizational effectiveness.
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Why are individual differences studied.
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1) Identify KSAOs through job analysis. 2) Get as close to the assessment as possible during the hiring process. 3) Validation(Proof of effectiveness) This shows that the scope of interviews are limited.
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What are the two essentials when designing a training program and doing personnel selection? How does this reflect on interviews.
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What behaviour managers say they are rewading are different from what behaviours employees say are being rewarded.
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What issue did Kerr show through a study on reward procedures?
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Specific, challenging goals with feedback on performance.
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What leads to superior performance?
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Highly situational in nature.
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What is the largely agreed finding about leaders?
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1) A leader is able to get others to willingly or unwillingly do their bidding. 2) The group will become disorganised, tentative and uncertain without the leader. 3) The leader is looked towards to in times of stress and uncertainty.
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What observations should be made about a leader?
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Teams 1) Form teams with people with fairly similar attitudes* 2) Support teams with necessary tools, equipments and knowledge in the organization* 3) Develop team-building 4) Give autonomy in decision-making 5) Give easier tasks at the start for early success experiences 6) Break stereotypes 7) Provide clearly defined goals for teams
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What is helpful to do when forming teams?
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They feel it dilutes their power.
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Why do leaders fear participation by subordinates?
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The concept that individuals are really members in many groups, and how one individual can embody the attributes of numerous groups.
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What are intergroups?
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1) Leader-member 2) Work Team 3) Intergroups
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What 3 types of interpersonal relationships exist?
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The climate and culture of the company.
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What is the organizational layer?
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Through its policies and systems. Management must consider intended and unintended consequences of its implementation, on the individual, teams and organization as a whole*
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How can the organizational layer influence the other layers?

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