Respiratory System Terms

Flashcard maker : Deacon Kirby
Glottis
space (separates) between vocal cords.
URI
Upper Respiratory Infection- infection of nose, larynx & bronchi ex. Colds caused by a virus.
Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx- symptoms: sore throat & difficulty in swallowing.
Laryngitis
Hoarseness; inflammation of the “voice box” or larynx
Rhinitis
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa
Sinusitis
inflammation of air cavities (spaces)
Bronchoscope
Instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity.
Tuberculosis
an inflammation of lungs caused by Tubercle Bacillus, a bacteria known as “myobacterium tuberculosis”
Apnea
an absence of spontaneous respiration. ex. obstructive sleep apnea- repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep which leads to absence of breathing (pharynx-throat)
Bronchitis
inflammation of bronchi
pulmonary edema
fluid accumulation of the alveoli & brochioles
tracheostomy
operation of inserting a metal tube in the trachea
anoxia
lack of oxygen
asthma
condition of characterized by obstruction of bronchial tubes & dyspnea
dyspnea
labored or difficulty breathing
medulla
the portion of the brain that controls the respiratory center
influenza
highly infectious disease caused by a virus
cyanosis
bluish color of skin
emphysema
stretching of lung tissue, caused by alvelor becoming so distended and loosing elasticity
asphyxia
suffocation, lack of tissue O2 accompanied by increase in tissue CO2
aspirate
to withdraw fluid or to suction, to draw foreign material into respiratory tract
suction apparatus
instrument used to remove mucus & other substances from the respiratory tract
pulmonary embolism
foreign matter, such as blood clot, air, or fat carried in the circulation to pulmonary artery where it acts as a block
phrenic
nerve that supplies the diaphragm
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disease, characterized by excessive mucous in respiratory tract
larynx
“voice box” located just below the pharynx
pneumonectomy
removal of a lung
pharynx
scientific name for the throat
influenza
URI caused by a virus- “flu”
virus
the etiologic agent that causes a cold or flu
hemoglobin
iron containing protein that carries O2 in the blood
alveoli
small air sacs
epiglottis
leaf shaped, cartilage, partially covers the opening of the larynx. The epiglottis acts like a trapdoor, closing off the larynx during swallowing and preventing food from entering the trachea.
Deviated septum
a condition in which the nasal septum strays from the midline of the nasal cavity. sometimes congenital defect or results of injury or infection. may be surgically repaired
endoscope
instrument used for visual exam within a hollow organ or body cavity
laryngoscope
instrument used to examine larynx (voice box) or to help insert intubation tube.
spirometer
instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volume). in other words it is used to measure volumes of air exchanged in breathing
eupnea
normal breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
hypernea
exessive breathing
cheyne-strokes
cycles of alternating apnea & dyspnea associated with critical conditions
respiratory arrest
failure to resume breathing after a period of apnea
hyperventilation
rapid & deep respiration
hypoventilation
slow & shallow respirations
hypoxia (anoxia)
deficient (lack of) O2 tissue
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
coryzna or rhinorrhea
discharge from the nose (as in a cold)
epistaxis
nosebleed
pons
region of the brain that contains respiration control center
tidal volume
amount normally breathed in or out with each breath (relaxed breathing)
vital capacity
the largest amount of air that one can breathe out in one expiration
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expring the tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
amount of air that can be forcible inhaled after a normal inspiration
residual volume (RV)
air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
rate
usually about 12-18 breaths a minute; much faster during exercise
surfactant
a substance manufactured by special cells in the walls of the alveoli. it reduces the surface tension to prevent alveoli from collapsing (this important substance is not fully developed until shortly before birth- normally about 40wks after conception)
tracheostomy
the creation of an artificial opening into the trachea in which a tube is usually inserted.
tracheotomy
inscision into the trachea
pneumothorax
air in the chest (peural space) which causes collapse of the lung
pulmonary edema
fluid accumulation in the alveoli & bronchioles
pleurisy
is an inflammation of the parietal pleura, characterized by difficulty in breathing and stabbing pain
atelectasis
collapse of the lung for any reason is called atelectasis ex. pneumothorax- “air in the thorax” is the presence of air in the pleural space on one side of the chest from ex. a puncture wound to the chest wall or a rupture of the visceral pleura.
Hemothorax
the presence of “blood in the pleural space” both potentially life threatening unless medical treatment is received
sinuses
small cavities in the bones of the skull are lined with mucus membrane
diaphragm
separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. dome shaped muscle- flattens during inhalation.
phrenic
the nerve that stimulates the diaphragm
tuberculosis
chronic bacillus infection caused by “myobacterium tuberculosis”. highly contagious transmitted through inhalation or swallowing of droplets contaminated with TB bacillus.
pleura
a membrane around the lungs
visceral pleura
the part of the pleura attached to the lung (closest to the organ)
visceral pleura
the part of the pleura attatched to the lung (closest to the organ)
perietal pleura
the part of the pleura attached to the chest wall
hypoxia
a reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues
mediastinum
the heart is situated in this space between the lungs
diffusion
the physical process by which gasses are exchanged in the body
hilus
a depression on the medial side of the lung where bronchus enters
bronchiole
the smallest division of the bronchus

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