Research exam 2

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T or F: The best means of obtaining an unbiased sample of subjects in a community is to select a random sample of names from the telephone directory

T or F: Nonprobability sampling means there is no probability that the subjects selected will constitute a biased sample

T or F: Researchers generally study samples rather than populations

T or F: A sampling frame is a listing of all elements of a population

Convenience sampling
ID the sampling method: The clients in the hypertension clinics of two local hospitals are studied

Cluster sampling
ID the sampling method: A total of 20 nursing service administrators are randomly selected from a random sample of 10 hospitals in the state.

Systematic sampling
ID the sampling method: Every fifth nurse is randomly selected from the mailing list of the American Nurses Association.

Quota Sampling
ID the sampling method: The first 30 men and first 30 women who are admitted to the hospital for abdominal surgery during the time of the research study are asked to participate.

Simple Random Sampling
ID the sampling method: To determine the frequency of the recording of nursing diagnoses by nurses, a sample of 100 charts is randomly selected from all of the patients’ charts during the previous year.

Snowball sampling
ID the sampling method: To obtain mothers of children with cystic fibrosis, a researcher contacted one such mother who lived in her neighborhood and asked her if she knew any other mothers of children with cystic fibrosis.

Which of the following types of studies is considered a qualitative study?

Grounded theory research was developed by two _______.

Margaret Mead was a researcher from what discipline?

External criticism should be considered before internal criticism.
Which of the following statements is true concerning the examination of historical research?

individuals, groups of individuals, institutions
Case studies may concern an in-depth examination of _____, _______, and _______.

Consider this title: “The Lived Experience of Surviving an Earthquake.” This title would indicate which of the following types of qualitative research?

sometimes conducted prior to the beginning of the study.
The review of the literature in qualitative research is….

Which type of qualitative research approach would be most appropriate to study nurses’ involvement in bringing about a change in the type of forms used to record patient data?

Teresa Christy, a nurse, was involved in what type of qualitative research?

Action, ethnographic, phenomenological, historical
Which type(s) of qualitative research has or have been conducted by nurses?

“It’s a good thing I’m in this new diet study. I couldn’t believe it when that researcher told me that I was 10 pounds overweight.”

“Aren’t we lucky to be part of this experiment?”
Hawthorne Effect

“That researcher scares me. Guess I’d better act like he wants me to act.”
Experimenter effect

“I volunteered to be in the experimental group.”
selection bias

“I watched this show about lung cancer. It made me realize that I really should try to stop smoking while I’m in this smoking cessation study.”

Random assignment of subjects to groups
Which of the following items distinguishes true experimental research from quasi-experimental research?

Solomon four-group design
Which of the following designs controls for the sensitization of subjects to a pretest?

A television celebrity had a heart attack and later announced on television that it is important for people to understand how their heart functions.
A researcher is studying the use of a new realistic model of the heart to teach people what happens during a heart attack. Two weeks later she will test their recall of the information taught. Which of the following situations that might occur during the study would concern the researcher most about the validity of her study?

The health care agency will not allow the researcher to assign study participants to groups randomly.
A researcher wants to use a true experimental design in her study. However, which of the following circumstances would require the use of a quasi-experimental design rather than a true experimental design?

There is no set number of steps.
All authors agree on the following number of steps in conducting quantitative research:

There may be some shifting back and forth between the steps.
Which of the following answers is true concerning quantitative research?

determine existing knowledge on the topic
One of the main purposes of conducting a review of the literature before carrying out a research project is to:

All studies are based on assumptions.
Which of the following is true concerning assumptions?

The plan for how a study will be conducted is called the ______.

The small group selected from a larger group to participate in a study is known as the _______.

early in the research project
At what point in the research process should a statistician be consulted initially?

a score above 40 on the Nieswiadomy Anxiety Inventory
A friend asks you to explain the difference between a conceptual definition and an operational definition of anxiety. You help her to understand these concepts by providing her with the following operational definition of anxiety:

utilize the findings
The final step of the research process, for the researcher, is to:

Which of the following communication mediums is the most efficient means of presenting research findings?

T or F: Qualitative research has been the type of research chosen by most nurse researchers in the past.

T or F: The number of subjects is generally larger in qualitative research than in quantitative research.

T or F: The researcher exerts tight controls over the research situation in qualitative research.

T or F: Many nurses are calling for a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods in research.

T or F: Qualitative researchers are very concerned with the generalizability of their study findings.

T or F: Qualitative research is less common today than it was 20 years ago.

T or F: There has been an increase in the number of qualitative studies conducted in the past few years.

The amount of data to be analyzed is usually greater in qualitative studies than in quantitative studies.
Which of the following statements is true when comparing qualitative research to quantitative research?

participant observations and semistructured interviews.
If a researcher were planning a qualitative study, which of the following data-collection methods do you think would most likely be considered?

mixed methods
When both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used simultaneously in the same study, this procedure is called:

pretest-posttest control group design
Which of the following designs would be most appropriate to use in trying to determine if clients’ low back pain changes after they were taught an exercise to help correct back alignment?

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