Research and Methods

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A research procedure in which the scientist has complete control over all aspects of the study is called:
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A true experiment
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Which one of the following variables is most experimentally manipulable?
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teaching method
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The way in which subjects are treated in an experiment is referred to as the:
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condition
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In a well-designed between-subjects experiment, the participants would:
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Be randomly allocated to conditions
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A well-designed experiment will:
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adequately control for threats to validity
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The two basic elements of a true experimental design are:
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a control group or a control condition and random allocation of subjects to group
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Order effects result from:
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the ordinal position of the condition
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Which of the following is a true experimental design?
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two conditions, tested within subjects
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Which one of the following is the simplest true experimental design?
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two-conditions, within-subjects design
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Two types of psychotherapy are compared for treating depression. A random half of the subjects receive each of the treatments. What type of design does this study represent?
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Single-factor between subjects
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In a study of preference for four different clothing styles, each participant is asked to evaluate all four styles in a reverse counterbalanced order. What type of design does this study represent?
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one-variable within-subjects design
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Which one of the following is not a type of interaction?
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main effect
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If one variable has a smaller effect when paired with higher levels of a second variable, you have a(n):
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ceiling effect interaction
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Factorial designs can be conducted:
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between subjects within subjects mixed
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The integration of taste (sweet vs salty) and smell (fish vs orange) was investigated in cats. Each cat received one taste-smell combination and was then given a preference test. The design of this experiment is:
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Between subjects
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A factorial design that has at least one within-subject variable and one between-group variable is called a(n):
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Mixed design
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How many conditions are in a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial experiment?
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9
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Factorial designs are used mainly to:
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test for the interaction of several variables in the same experiment
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Bower, Gilligan, and Monterio (1981) hypothesized that people would notice and remember events in stories that were consistent with their mood. Participants were put into either a happy or a sad mood. All participants then read two stories, one of which was happy and one of which was sad. What was the design of the experiment?
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mixed factorial design
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A major advantage of a two-factor analysis of variance over a one-factor analysis of variance is that:
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power is often increased and interaction between factors can be identified
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According to the text, the founder of experimental psychology was:
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Gustav Fechner
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Researchers who favor the single subject approach over the group research approach assume that most variability within the subject’s behavior:
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is caused by the research situation or setting
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Obtaining baseline stability:
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is not always possible
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The term power refers to:
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the probability that a statistical test will find a significant difference when a true difference exists in the population
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The term clinical significance refers to:
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the practical importance of research findings
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A behavioral therapists is trying to decrease an autistic child’s disruptive behavior. He first observes the baseline level of the behavior, then observes the behavior again after his intervention. Since his therapy seems to be effective, he continues to treat the child in the same way. This type of design is called an:
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A-B Design
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Which one of the following strategies is not a basic control strategy in a single subject research?
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changing more that one variable at a time
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Multipe-baseline designs may be conducted across all of the following variables except:
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Antecedents
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Sarah took special classes from Tim to improve her spelling. Tim first testes Sarah’s current spelling ability. Tim was not sure what teaching method would work best, so she tried three different ones: positive practice, positive reinforcement, and correction. He tried a different method during each class, testing Sarah’s spelling at the end of the day. What design was time using?
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Alternating treatment
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Which of the following areas of psychology is most likely to employ single-subject research?
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sensation
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A quasi experimental has lower ________ validity but may have higher ________ validity.
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internal, external
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A criminal psychologist is interested in studying the effect of a new furlough program on inmate morale. There are two prisons involved in the study. One prison will institute then furlough program and the other will not. The psychologists arranges with the superintendent of both prisons to measure inmate morals before the furlough program begins and six months after the program started. What type of quasi experimental design in illustrated in this example?
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nonequivalent control group
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A distinguishing characteristic of the nonequivalent control-group design in that the:
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subjects are not randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups
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An interrupted time series design lacks:
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A control group
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When Alexander Wagenaar compared alcohol-related traffic accidents before and after the increase of the drinking age, the ___________ design was used.
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interrupted time series
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A _________ study tests different individuals at the same general time.
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cross-sectional
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A secular trend is a:
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trend in the general population
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An evaluation of how effective a program is in meeting its goals is called a:
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summative evaluation
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An evaluation listing how to improve a program when it is ongoing is called a:
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formative evaluation
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Combing the results of many studies as if they were one large study is called:
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meta-analysis
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The need for an ethics code became evident after the war trials associated with:
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World War II
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Ethical standards in psychological research are tentative because:
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They change with the times
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The APA ethics code represents:
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the consensus of the psychology profession about what is acceptable practice
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When beginning a project involving human participants, approval must be obtained from:
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the IRB
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All experiments conducted on human participants at an institution:
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require that the IRB is informed of the experiment
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The APA ethics code covers all:
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professional activities of psychologists and those under their supervision
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A psychology graduate student is employed as a research assistant in a psychological experiment involving deception. In studying the research plan, she notices that no debriefing is planned. What should she do?
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She has a responsibility to raise the question with the principal investigator and see that it is resolved.
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In order for an average 21 year old college student to take part in a study,
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He or she must give consent
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If people are induced to participate in an experiment by paying them large sums of money:
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the experiment could be in violation of the APA’s Ethical Principles on Coercion
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If a college student agrees to participate in an experiment and then, after completing part of the work, drops out:
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nothing should be done because the student has the right to withdraw

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