Reduction & Oxidation

Flashcard maker : Daniel Hardy

Define:

 

Electrolyte

A solute which produces ions when dissolved in H2O.

(The resulting aqueous solution of solute conducts electricity)

Define:

 

Strong Electrolyte

A solute which dissociates/ionizes 100% in aqueous solutions.

Define:

 

Weak Electrolyte

A solute which dissociates/ionizes less than 100% in aqueous solution.

 

Typically much less than 100%.

When writing a reaction for a strong electrolyte what type of symbol do use?

Single headed arrow

 

When writing a reaction for a weak electrolyte what type of symbol do use?

Double headed arrow

 

or

Define:

 

Non-Electrolyte

A solute which does not produce ions when dissolved in H2O.

(Aqueous solution does not conduct electricity)

Define:

 

Dissociation

The process of a solid ionic compound separating into ions when dissolved in H2O.

Define:

 

Ionization

The process of a covalent compound separate into ions when dissolved in H2O.

 

(Not all covalent compounds ionize)

What is a covalent compound?
A non-metal bonded to another non-metal.
What is an Ionic compound?

metal – nonmetal

metal – polyatomic ion

nonmetal – polyatomic ion

polyatomic ion1 – polyatomic ion2

Strong Electrolytes contain:

Strong acids (covalent)

Strong bases (ionic)

Most water soluable salts (ionic)

Weak Electrolytes contain:

Weak acids (covalent)

Weak bases (covalent)

Water insoluble salts (ionic)

Water

Define:

 

Salt

An ionic compound which consists of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH.
How many types of reactions are there for electrolytes?

Three…

Molecular Reaction

Total Ionic Reaction

Net Ionic Reaction

What are the characteristics of a Molecular Reaction?

All reactants and products are shown as “intact” compounds(undissociated or unionized).

 

AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

What are the characteristics of a Total Ionic Reaction?

All soluble reactants and products are in their dissociated/ionized form (written as ions).

 

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) →

AgCl(s)   + Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq)

What are the characteristics of a Net Ionic Reaction?

Total ionic reaction with all “spectator ions” removed.

 

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq)→

AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq)

 


 

Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s)

Define:

 

Oxidation

The loss of 1 or more electrons from a substance.

 

Na → Na+ + e

Define:

 

Reduction

The gain of 1 or more electrons.

 

F + e → F

nemonic:

 

LEO the lion goes GER

Loss of Electron = Oxidation

 

Gain of Electron = Reduction

Define:

 

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that is reduced(i.e. gains electrons).

Define:

 

Reducing Agent

The substance that is oxidized (i.e. loses electrons).
Q: How do you determine which substances have been oxidized and reduced?

By the Oxidation State.

 

Oxidation State is a method of bookkeeping to identify what atoms have been oxidized and reduced.

Define:

 

Oxidation State

The charge of an atom invilved in a chemical bond if electrons were not shared between the bonded atome but instead were completely transferredto the more electronegative atom.

T or F

 

Oxidation(loss of electron/s)

=

increase in Oxidation state

True

T or F

 

Oxidation(loss of electron/s)

=

decrease in Oxidation state

False

 

it = increase in oxidation state

T or F

 

Reduction(gain of electron/s)

=

a decrease on oxidation state

True

T or F

 

Reduction(gain of electron/s)

=

a increase on oxidation state

False

 

it = decrease in oxidation state

T or F

 

You only need reduction to occur in a reaction.

False

 

Both oxidation and reduction must occur in a reaction.

Define:

 

Acid

A species which produces H+ (hydrogen ion) in aqueous solution.

Define:

 

Base

A species which produces OH (hydroxide ion) in aqueous solution.

T or F

 

H and H3O+ are used interchangeably.

True.

Bronsted/Lowery definition of:

 

Acid

Species which can donate a hydrogen proton (H+)

Bronsted/Lowery definition of a:

 

Base

Species which can accept a hydrogen proton(H+)

Define:

 

pH scale

A numerical scale describing molar concentration of H3O+ of an aqueous solution.

pH = -log[H3O+]

pH is unitless

p = -log

For an aqueous solution what is the range of the pH scale?
0-14
What is the pH range of an Acidic solution?
pH = [ 0.00 to 7.00 )
What is the pH range of a Base solution?
pH = ( 7.00 to 14.00 ]
What is the pH range for a Neutral solution?
pH = Acidic < 7.00 > Base

Define:

 

Solution

A homogeneous mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent.

 

solute + solvent = solution

solute dissolves in a solvent

typically solvent(qty) > solute(qty)

Define:

 

Concentration

An expression relating to the amount of solute present in some amount of solvent or solution.

 

amount = mass, mole, or volume

How is Molarity (M) expressed?

 

 

hint: it’s not M = mole/liter

[image]

moles of solute

liter of solution

;

or

;

mol

liter

Define:

;

Titration

A procedure in which one substance(titrant) is aded to another substance(analyte) until a complete reaction has occurred.

Define:

;

Equivalence Point

The point in the titration at which just enough titrant has been delivered to the receiving flask to completely react with the analyte originally placed in the receiving flask.

Define:

;

Equivalence Point Volume

Volume of titrant needed to reach the equivalence point.

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