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Reduction & Oxidation

question

Define:

 

Electrolyte

answer

A solute which produces ions when dissolved in H2O.

(The resulting aqueous solution of solute conducts electricity)

question

Define:

 

Strong Electrolyte

answer

A solute which dissociates/ionizes 100% in aqueous solutions.
question

Define:

 

Weak Electrolyte

answer

A solute which dissociates/ionizes less than 100% in aqueous solution.

 

Typically much less than 100%.

question

When writing a reaction for a strong electrolyte what type of symbol do use?
answer

Single headed arrow

 

question

When writing a reaction for a weak electrolyte what type of symbol do use?
answer

Double headed arrow

 

or

question

Define:

 

Non-Electrolyte

answer

A solute which does not produce ions when dissolved in H2O.

(Aqueous solution does not conduct electricity)

question

Define:

 

Dissociation

answer

The process of a solid ionic compound separating into ions when dissolved in H2O.
question

Define:

 

Ionization

answer

The process of a covalent compound separate into ions when dissolved in H2O.

 

(Not all covalent compounds ionize)

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What is a covalent compound?
answer

A non-metal bonded to another non-metal.
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What is an Ionic compound?
answer

metal – nonmetal

metal – polyatomic ion

nonmetal – polyatomic ion

polyatomic ion1 – polyatomic ion2

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Strong Electrolytes contain:
answer

Strong acids (covalent)

Strong bases (ionic)

Most water soluable salts (ionic)

question

Weak Electrolytes contain:
answer

Weak acids (covalent)

Weak bases (covalent)

Water insoluble salts (ionic)

Water

question

Define:

 

Salt

answer

An ionic compound which consists of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH.
question

How many types of reactions are there for electrolytes?
answer

Three…

Molecular Reaction

Total Ionic Reaction

Net Ionic Reaction

question

What are the characteristics of a Molecular Reaction?
answer

All reactants and products are shown as “intact” compounds(undissociated or unionized).

 

AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

question

What are the characteristics of a Total Ionic Reaction?
answer

All soluble reactants and products are in their dissociated/ionized form (written as ions).

 

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) →

AgCl(s)   + Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq)

question

What are the characteristics of a Net Ionic Reaction?
answer

Total ionic reaction with all “spectator ions” removed.

 

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq)→

AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq)

 


 

Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s)

question

Define:

 

Oxidation

answer

The loss of 1 or more electrons from a substance.

 

Na → Na+ + e

question

Define:

 

Reduction

answer

The gain of 1 or more electrons.

 

F + e → F

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nemonic:

 

LEO the lion goes GER

answer

Loss of Electron = Oxidation

 

Gain of Electron = Reduction

question

Define:

 

Oxidizing Agent

answer

The substance that is reduced(i.e. gains electrons).
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Define:

 

Reducing Agent

answer

The substance that is oxidized (i.e. loses electrons).
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Q: How do you determine which substances have been oxidized and reduced?
answer

By the Oxidation State.

 

Oxidation State is a method of bookkeeping to identify what atoms have been oxidized and reduced.

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Define:

 

Oxidation State

answer

The charge of an atom invilved in a chemical bond if electrons were not shared between the bonded atome but instead were completely transferredto the more electronegative atom.
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T or F

 

Oxidation(loss of electron/s)

=

increase in Oxidation state

answer

True
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T or F

 

Oxidation(loss of electron/s)

=

decrease in Oxidation state

answer

False

 

it = increase in oxidation state

question

T or F

 

Reduction(gain of electron/s)

=

a decrease on oxidation state

answer

True
question

T or F

 

Reduction(gain of electron/s)

=

a increase on oxidation state

answer

False

 

it = decrease in oxidation state

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T or F

 

You only need reduction to occur in a reaction.

answer

False

 

Both oxidation and reduction must occur in a reaction.

question

Define:

 

Acid

answer

A species which produces H+ (hydrogen ion) in aqueous solution.
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Define:

 

Base

answer

A species which produces OH (hydroxide ion) in aqueous solution.
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T or F

 

H and H3O+ are used interchangeably.

answer

True.
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Bronsted/Lowery definition of:

 

Acid

answer

Species which can donate a hydrogen proton (H+)
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Bronsted/Lowery definition of a:

 

Base

answer

Species which can accept a hydrogen proton(H+)
question

Define:

 

pH scale

answer

A numerical scale describing molar concentration of H3O+ of an aqueous solution.

pH = -log[H3O+]

pH is unitless

p = -log

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For an aqueous solution what is the range of the pH scale?
answer

0-14
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What is the pH range of an Acidic solution?
answer

pH = [ 0.00 to 7.00 )
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What is the pH range of a Base solution?
answer

pH = ( 7.00 to 14.00 ]
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What is the pH range for a Neutral solution?
answer

pH = Acidic < 7.00 > Base
question

Define:

 

Solution

answer

A homogeneous mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent.

 

solute + solvent = solution

solute dissolves in a solvent

typically solvent(qty) > solute(qty)

question

Define:

 

Concentration

answer

An expression relating to the amount of solute present in some amount of solvent or solution.

 

amount = mass, mole, or volume

question

How is Molarity (M) expressed?

 

 

hint: it’s not M = mole/liter

[image]

answer

moles of solute

liter of solution

;

or

;

mol

liter

question

Define:

;

Titration

answer

A procedure in which one substance(titrant) is aded to another substance(analyte) until a complete reaction has occurred.
question

Define:

;

Equivalence Point

answer

The point in the titration at which just enough titrant has been delivered to the receiving flask to completely react with the analyte originally placed in the receiving flask.
question

Define:

;

Equivalence Point Volume

answer

Volume of titrant needed to reach the equivalence point.