men and women who had been slaves

rebuilding of the South after the Civil War

Ten Percent Plan
Lincolns plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States

government pardon

Wade-Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had volunteered to fight for the Confederacy

Freedmens Bureau
government agency founded during Reconstruction to help former slaves

Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation

black codes
Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War

Radical Republicans
members of Congress during Reconstruction who wanted to

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ensure that freedmen received the right to vote

Fourteenth Amendment
An amendment to the United States Constitution that guarantees equal protection of the law and rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the USA, including former slaves.

Radical Reconstruction
period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction

Reconstruction Act
an 1867 law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment

to bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official

Fifteenth Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution that forbids any state to deny African Americans the right to vote because of race. All males 21+ can vote.

white Southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction

uncomplimentary nick-name for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War

Ku Klux Klan
secret society organized after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence

person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop

poll tax
tax required before a person can vote

literacy test
examination to see if a person can read and write; used in the past to restrict voting rights

grandfather clause
law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867; kept freedmen from voting.

legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

Plessy v. Ferguson
an 1896 court case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public facilities was legal as long as the facilities were equal

Homestead Act of 1862
any citizen could occupy 160 acres of government land, if improvements were made to the land citizens would own the land after 5 years

Morrill Act of 1862
the government gave land to states, they could sell the land and use profit to fund public colleges

Dawes Act of 1887
tried to civilize Indians and make them more little settlers by giving them land to farm, instead it harmed their native culture
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