Quiz 5 – Chemistry

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oxidized
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lose electrons
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reduced
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gain electrons
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Oxidation number during oxidation
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increases
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oxidation number during reduction
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decrease
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half reaction electrons during oxidation
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electrons are products
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half reaction electrons during reduction
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electrons as reactants
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oxygen during oxidation
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oxygen added
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oxygen during reduction
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oxygen lost
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Rule 1: oxidation state of free elements
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0
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Rule 2: oxidation state of monatomic ions
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equal to their charge
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Rule 3: sum of atoms oxidation states in a compound
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equal zero
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Rule 4a: Group I metals have an oxidation state
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of +1 in their compounds
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Rule 4b: Group II metals have an oxidation state
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of +2 in their compounds
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Rule 5: nonmetals
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nonmetals have oxidation
states according to the table, F=-1,H=+1, O=-2, group 7a=-1, group 6a=-2,group 5a=-3
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reducing agent
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reactant that reduces an element in another reactant, contains the element that is oxidized
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oxidizing agent
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reactant that oxidizes an element in another reactant, contains the element that is reduced
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Anode electrode
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where oxidation occurs
loses weight
positive end of battery
attracts anions
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Cathode electrode
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where reduction occurs
attracts cations
negative end of battery
gains weight
where plating takes place
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1Amp (current) = 1 Coulomb of charge =
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1 A = 6.242 x 10^18 electrons per second?
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1 volt
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1 J per Coulomb of charge
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electromotive
forcel
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Amount of force pushing the electrons
through the wire
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cell potential
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difference in potential energy between the
anode and the cathode in a voltaic cell

standard emf, Eocell

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inert electrode
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does not participate in
reaction, but just provides a surface
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half-reaction with a strong tendency to occur
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large positive half-cell potential
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how electrons will flow when two half-cells are connected
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half-reaction with the stronger
tendency will occurire
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standard hydrogen electrodels =
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= 0 v
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stronger tendency toward
reduction than the SHE
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+ value for Ered
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stronger tendency toward
oxidation than the SHE
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– value for Ered
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For oxidation half-reaction
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Eoxi = – Ered
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Ecell =
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Eoxidation + Ereduction
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spontaneous reactionion
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Free energy change
G < 1 (negative)
E > 1 (positive)
K > 1
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G= -RTlnKB=
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=-nFEcell
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free energy change (G^o)=
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=G + RTlnQ
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E =
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E^o -(0.0592/n)logQ
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Concentration Cellsnion
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Electrons will flow from the electrode in the less
concentrated solution to the electrode in the more
concentrated solution
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ElectrolysisTlnQ
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using
electrical energy to break
a compound apartrire
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Corrosion
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spontaneous oxidation of a metal
by chemicals in the environmentl
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Rust
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Fe2O3*nH2O;B
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Rust
answer

Fe2O3*nH2O;B

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