QT_Fine_Arts_100_Questions

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Great Britain
A contemporary art movement from this country produced a tent covered in the names of everyone the artist slept with from 1963 to 1995, while another artist from that movement created a diamond-studded skull and encased a shark in a tank of formaldehyde. A painting by an artist from this country shows a drowned girl floating in a stream with flowers in her hands in Ophelia, while another painting from here shows Willy Lott’s cottage on the left as a horse pulls a cart along the River Stour. For 10 points, name this nation home to Damien Hirst and the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood, as well as the artist of The Hay Wain, John Constable.
The Swing
A rake lies at the bottom of this work, and a fluffy white dog to the right of it peeks over a bridge. Gabriel Doyen was initially asked to paint this work’s subject, but refused and passed on the commission. A stone cupid observes to the left of the central figure in this painting, while two more cupids observe from the right. The central figure’s lover (*) hides in the bushes at the bottom of this painting and gazes lewdly as her husband pushes the title device unawares. For 10 points, Jean-Honore Fragonard painted a girl with a billowing pink dress kicking her shoe off while riding the titular device in what masterpiece of the Rococo style?
Impressionism
This movement emerged after an “Anonymous Society” organized an independent exhibition after being rejected from the Salon. The Child’s Bath was a painting by an American member of this art movement, Mary Cassatt. One member of this school painted the Houses of Parliament under varying (*) weather conditions and another painted Van Gogh leaning over a boat rail in The Luncheon of the Boating Party. This school received its name from a painting of a sunrise over Le Havre harbor, and one artist from this school painted haystacks and water lilies. For 10 points, Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet were of what school of art?
Cupid [or Eros; or Amor]
The Wallace Collection holds a Francois Boucher (boo-SHAY) painting of this character held captive, and Boucher also included two swans in a painting of this character being disarmed. Caravaggio showed this character trampling a suit of armor, a compass, and other symbols of civilization in s Virgil-inspired painting of his “victorious”. A statue of this character raises a finger to his lips in a sign of silence, while a man (*) looking up a lady’s dress reclines against that statue, in Fragonard’s The Swing. This character shares an incestuous kiss with his mother in a painting where the fourth title figure pulls back a curtain to expose them. For 10 points, name this god who appears with Folly, Time and Venus in a Bronzino painting, the god of love.
El Greco
In the upper right of one of this artist’s paintings, a man in a purple robe with an orange sash stands out in a sea of figures in grey and yellow. In lieu of a signature, many of his paintings show a hand gesture where the middle and ring fingers are held together and the other two splay out. This man showed a blue-clad St. John raising his arms to heaven on the left of his Opening of the Fifth Seal, and showed the gold-robed saints Stephen and Augustine by the title armor-clad nobleman in Burial of the Count of Orgaz. For 10 points, name this Spanish Renaissance painter of elongated figures, who painted his adoptive home in View of Toledo after emigrating from Crete.
Botticelli
He’s not Rodin, but this artist depicted three angels holding their hands inwards on a straw roof in a painting he signed in Greek, which also shows a hovering circle of olive-holding angels. This man included orange groves in two large paintings a decade and a half prior to his Mystic Nativity. This painter showed Chloris running away from Zephyr in a canvas where the three Graces dance, and made another canvas where a Hora brings a blanket towards the center for a nude figure who covers her pelvis with her red hair. For 10 points, name this Florentine Renaissance painter of Primavera and The Birth of Venus.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
In this man’s first dated painting, angry men hold rocks over the kneeling, pink-robed body of Saint Stephen. He also painted a golden chain running diagonally across the chest of a man who puts his right hand on a statue. This man showed the prodigal son in a tavern next to himself and his wife Saskia in one of his 80-plus self-portraits. This artist of Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer showed a lone woman with a chicken on her belt amid a drum, a banner, and twenty armed men, and also showed students of Nicolaes Tulp gawking at a cut-open arm. For 10 points, name this painter of The Anatomy Lesson and The Night Watch, a Dutch master.
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
This sculpture is accompanied by sets of four sculpted heads in niches on the left and right walls perpendicular to it, showing the reactions of its patrons to the scene. This sculpture is framed by an aedicule with six dark marble columns and a white triangular roof. This sculpture behind the altar of the Cornaro chapel also contains bronze rays representing streams of light, hanging down from its top. On the left of this Baroque sculpture’s central white-marble cloud, a young angel stands holding an arrow. For 10 points, name this Bernini sculpture depicting the vision of an open-mouthed, reclining nun.
Grant Wood
This man showed himself looking at the viewer as five others watch him paint in Return from Bohemia. This founder of a failed art colony in Stone City also painted a man in a double-breasted red coat lifting back a red curtain, and a teacup lifted by one of three old women in front of Leutze’s Washington Crossing the Delaware. This artist of Parson Weems’ Fable and Daughters of Revolution also got his sister to pose sternly with his dentist in front of a red barn and a white house. For 10 points, name this Regionalist painter who showed Iowans holding a pitchfork in American Gothic.
Jacques-Louis David
In one portrait by this artist, a woman wears a black headband and an empire-waist dress while reclining on an antique settee. Another of his portraits shows soldiers pushing cannons in the background; the left foreground of that painting features stones inscribed with “Carolus Magnus” and “Hannibal.” Besides painting Madame Recamier and depicting a red-caped figure atop a rearing horse, this artist showed a turbaned man clutching a piece of paper in a bathtub. For 10 points, name this French Neoclassicical painter of Napoleon Crossing the Alps, The Death of Marat, and The Death of Socrates.
Andy Warhol
One work in a cycle by this artist has “The Big C” written in the center and shows a blue motorcycle on the left. This artist of a Last Supper series left the right sides blank in a group of works showing vehicle accidents, such as Silver Car Crash. This artist of the Death and Disaster series roped the Velvet Underground into his Exploding Plastic Inevitable events. He used silkscreening in his Pittsburgh studio, The Factory, to make prints of Mao and Jackie Kennedy. For 10 points, name this pop artist of the Marilyn Diptych who depicted many Campbell’s Soup cans.
The Third of May, 1808: Execution of the Defenders of Madrid [or El Tres de Mayo de 1808 en Madrid; or Los Fusilamientos de la Montaña del Principe Pio; or Los Fusilamientos del Tres de Mayo; do NOT accept or prompt on “Third of May” alone]
Next to the central character in this painting, a man with a shaved head and green pants clutches his hands. This painting inspired a 1951 Cubist painting set in Korea. This painting with a black sky is lit entirely by a box lamp on the ground. This painting is the companion of a piece in which a soldier is pulled off his white horse and stabbed in the chest, which precedes the events it depicts. The white-shirted central character in this painting stands with his arms spread in front of a firing squad. For 10 points, name this painting by Francisco Goya, depicting the execution of the defenders of Madrid on the title date.
The Sun
J. M. W. Turner painted this object “with a Boat between headlands,” with “Whiting Fishing at Margate,” and “with Sea Monsters.” This object is painted to the right of the title ships in Turner’s The Slave Ship and The Fighting TĂ©mĂ©raire. This object is in the upper left of Turner’s Hannibal Crossing the Alps. In a painting of it from the harbour of Le Havre, which also includes some loosely-painted rowboats, this object is orange. That painting subtitled for this object gave its name to the Impressionist movement and was painted by Claude Monet. For 10 points, name this object that is often depicted rising and setting.
Titian
This artist showed a ring constellation of eight stars in the upper-left corner of a painting in which a centaur boy with a spaniel looks at the viewer, a dark-skinned man struggles with several snakes, and a bare-chested god leaps from a chariot driven by two cheetahs. This namesake of a red pigment used to paint auburn hair also showed a maid rummaging through a trunk in an interior scene where a small dog curls up on a white bed and a bunch of flowers are held by a nude goddess gazing at the viewer. For 10 points, name this Venetian painter of Bacchus and Ariadne and Venus of Urbino.
Still-lifes
One artwork in this genre, which included a cat with an arched back beside a partially-skinned ray, was by master Jean Chardin. Several works in its bodegĂłn subgenre were produced by the Spaniard Francisco de Zurbaran. The vanitas subgenre of these paintings reminds the viewer of the transience of life by showing books propped open with skulls. One painting of this type uses disjointed perspective to show ladyfinger cookies stacked like Lincoln logs; that painting is Paul Cezanne’s Basket of Apples. For 10 points, name this type of painting exemplified by Van Gogh’s Sunflowers, a genre which typically depicts an arrangement of inanimate objects on a table.
Peter Paul Rubens
In one painting, this artist depicted water streaming out of the breasts of a statue of Venus at his wedding to Helene Fourment. This artist of The Garden of Love depicted three men on horseback attacking the title creature, which stands on top of a crocodile, in his The Hippopotamus Hunt. The Coronation in Saint-Denis and The (*) Disembarkation at Marseilles are parts of a cycle by this artist, who also created a triptych that depicts Christ being taken down after the crucifixion. For ten points, identify this Flemish painter of the Marie de Medici cycle and The Descent from the Cross who is known for his fleshy nudes.
Jan Vermeer
This artist depicted a maid delivering the title message to a seated woman with a lute in The Love Letter. Other works by this artist include one in which the title green-robed figure inspects a globe and another in which a representation of the muse Clio is being painted. This painter of The Astronomer and The (*) Art of Painting also depicted a billowy cloud casting a shadow over a harbor in a painting of his hometown. His most famous painting depicts a woman in a blue turban turns back towards the viewer, thereby revealing the title piece of jewelry. For ten points, identify this Dutch artist of View of Delft and Girl with a Pearl Earring.
Rene Magritte
The nightdress-covered head of the corpse of this artist’s mother may have influenced his painting of a couple titled Les Amants. This artist painted coffins in place of three women in his reimagining of The Balcony. He drew on the iconography of Fantomas for a painting of a man in front of a gramophone who is unaware of club- and net-wielding men lying in wait. This artist took leave of the Paris surrealists in 1930 to return to his home country, where he painted an indoor cannon in On the Threshold of Liberty, an easel depicting the landscape behind it in The Human Condition, raining men in Golconda, and a train jutting out from a fireplace in Time Transfixed. For 10 points, name this Belgian artist who enjoyed painting men in bowler hats.
The Yellow Christ
The background of this painting contains one house set apart from three in a row, as well as a wall being climbed by a man trying to get away from the scene. A mirror image of this painting forms most of the backdrop to the best-known self-portrait by its artist. This artwork emphasizes the pinkish-white garb of a woman who is facing away from the viewer and looking at the ground, and who is joined at the bottom-left by two similarly penitent women. Like a more coastal, gloomier counterpart, this painting was produced during its artist’s time in Pont-Aven in the Breton countryside, two years before he decided to escape European civilization and move to Tahiti. For 10 points, name this non-green depiction of the Crucifixion by Paul Gauguin.
World War I [or First World War; or Great War; prompt on World War]
Angels participate in this war in Natalia Goncharova’s lithograph series The Mystical Images of War. Soldiers from this war ride a merry-go-round in a painting by Mark Gertler. The Vorticist movement broke up partly as a result of this war. By putting a banner with the word “censored” over a piece, Christopher Nevinson publicized his sardonic painting of this war titled Paths of Glory. The etching series Der Krieg depicts Otto Dix’s experiences fighting in this war. A line of wounded soldiers walk toward a dressing station in a painting of this war by John Singer Sargent. Despair over this war prompted the foundation of Dadaism. For 10 points, name this war that is the subject of Sargent’s Gassed and Dix’s The Trench.
Jean-Antoine Watteau
This artist painted a crayfish and a lion next to a sickle-wielding goddess in Ceres, the only surviving painting of his series on the four seasons. In another of his paintings, a man wearing baggy pants and an ill-fitting white shirt stands in front of a doctor on his donkey. This user of the “three chalks” technique painted a group of aristocrats putting away a portrait of Louis XIV on the left side of a canvas intended as an advertisement for his friend’s boutique. Pairs of lovers prepare to leave the angel-infested isle sacred to Cupid in a painting by this artist depicting a fete-galante. For 10 points, name this Rococo painter of many commedia dell’arte characters, as well as of Gersaint’s Shop Sign and Embarkation for Cythera.
Honore Daumier
After guards left no one alive in a building suspected to harbor a fugitive, this artist depicted the bodies of a family living inside. A frequent subject of this man examines the pulse of a starving worker in It’s Safe to Release This One! and has bags of food and money rolled up his tongue into his mouth in Gargantua. He depicted his colleague at the journal Le Charivari in a hot air balloon in “Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art,” one of his more than four thousand lithographs. In a painting by this caricaturist of King Louis-Philippe, a hooded woman holding a basket sits between a sleeping boy and a breastfeeding mother in the part of a train reserved for the poor. For 10 points, name this socially-conscious French painter of The Third Class Carriage.
John the Baptist [prompt on John]
The Met’s collection includes a series of scenes from the life of this man painted by Francesco Granacci. Salai was the model for the final painting by Leonardo da Vinci, which depicts this man pointing upwards. Caravaggio painted eight total depictions of this man, including one in which the only instance of the artist’s signature is spelled out in this man’s blood. This man was frequently painted holding either a staff or a very thin cross and wearing a camel’s-hair shirt. This boy brings water in Christ in the House of His Parents, and he is the leftmost person in da Vinci’s Madonna of the Rocks. For 10 points, name this saint who usually shows up in Western art with his mother Elizabeth or as a decapitated head presented by Salome.
John Constable
This artist declined a request to paint a woman’s eye on a shirt pin. In one of this artist’s paintings, a bishop points his cane at a tree-covered building. He created a series of “six-footers” after the success of his canvas The White Horse. This painter spent hours reading Luke Howard and sketching clouds during his “skying” sessions, which led to the realism of the dark nimbus over a Neolithic monument in a painting of his. In the most famous artwork of this frequent painter of Salisbury Cathedral, a dog stands on the left bank of the Stour River near Willy Lott’s cottage, toward which a cart is being pulled. For 10 points, name this English landscape artist of The Hay Wain.
Vienna Secession
One painter from this movement produced a poster based on the Last Supper with himself in place of Jesus, and produced a parody titled Cardinal and Nun. The official magazine of this movement, Ver Sacrum, was illustrated by its co-founder Koloman Moser. One of this movement’s exhibitions featured a painting in which a gigantic furry brown monster represents Typhon. Oskar Kokoschka learned from the leaders of this movement, possibly absorbing the disturbingly erotic output of Egon Schiele. Its leader liberally used gold-leaf in paintings such as Danae and his mosaic-like depiction of an embracing couple. For 10 points, name this movement led by The Kiss painter Gustav Klimt that consisted of deviants from the status quo of Austrian art.
Christo Vladimirov Javacheff
A Maysles documentary describes a rancher’s experience sleeping beside an artwork by this man. Cologne Harbor was the site of an early artwork by this man titled Dockside Packages. For decades, this man tried to gain permission from the United Arab Emirates to build the stacked- oil-barrel sculpture Mastaba. This man created several large, inflatable indoor installations known as Air Packages. He used saffron-colored fabric to construct 7,503 structures in Central Park in his project The Gates, which, like virtually all of his work, was performed in collaboration with his Moroccan-born French wife Jean-Claude. For 10 points, name this Bulgarian mononymic artist who is best known for his part in wrapping the Reichstag.
Stadiums
The architecture firm Populous receives most of its business by designing this kind of building. Eduardo Souto de Moura integrated the rock wall of a quarry into his design for one of these buildings in Braga, Portugal. A two-layered building of this kind was inspired by crazed pottery and features a red concrete main structure surrounded by an irregular steel mesh. That building was a collaboration between (*) Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei. A building of this type gave a new name to ChemGrass, which was used there because that building featured a domed roof. These buildings include one in Beijing is nicknamed the “Bird’s Nest,” as well as the Houston Astrodome. For 10 points, name these buildings where spectator sports are played.
Palaces
One of these buildings lies on Seraglio Point, at the entrance to the Golden Horn. The oldest zoo in the world is located on the grounds of another one of these structures. Topkapi and Schonbrunn name those two examples of these structures, another one of which in (*) Lhasa was converted into a museum after the Dalai Lama fled in 1959. The Court of the Lions is located in one of these in Granada known as the Alhambra. Yellow glazed tiles cover the roofs of a “forbidden” complex of these buildings in Beijing. A famous one of these outside Paris contains the Hall of Mirrors the bedroom of Louis XIV. For ten points, identify this type of building exemplified by one at Versailles.
Frank Gehry
A Parisian building designed by this architect, which he referred to as “the dancer raising her tutu”, contains a large film museum and archive. He designed a contemporary art museum in Germany that has a statue of Tupac Shakur in front of it; that building is the MARTa Herford. The molecular studies buildings he designed are at the University of Cincinnati. A museum he designed next to the Nervion River is covered with titanium, while stainless steel covers a concert hall he designed in Los Angeles. Name this architect of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and the Walt Disney Concert Hall, who also designed the Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago.
M. Buonarroti
He restored most of Bramante’s plan for St. Peter’s Basilica as its major architect, and one of his works contains a supposed self-portrait of him in St. Bartholomew’s flayed skin. He carved his name into Mary’s sash in his (*) PietĂ  [pee-ay-tah], and this artist of The Last Judgement sculpted a young, relaxed marble David. For 10 points, name this artist who painted The Creation of Adam on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
Germany
One architect born in this country erected a “Parthenon of steel and glass” for the US Embassy in Athens. An architect born in this country designed the Tugendhat House in the Czech Republic, which used themes developed in his Barcelona Pavilion at the 1929 International Exposition. An architect born in this nation used stilts to protect a house from the flooding of the Fox River; that home was made mainly of Roman Travertine marble and (*) plate-glass and is Illinois’ Farnsworth House. That same architect from this country worked with Philip Johnson on the Seagram Building and declared that “less is more”. For 10 points, name this country, the birthplace of architects like Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius.
Sir Christopher Wren
A memorial to this architect says in Latin “If you seek his memorial, look about you.” One of his buildings is called a hospital, though it is a retirement home for veterans located in Chelsea. This architect of Saint Clement Danes designed another church that is on top of Ludgate Hill. Name this architect of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich [GREN-ich] who, after the Great Fire of London, oversaw the construction of many churches, including Saint Paul’s.
Frederick Law Olmsted
This American’s best-known project featured Ebert Ludovicus Viele as the engineer-in-chief. Near the end of his life, this man was ironically committed to McLean Hospital in Waverly, Massachusetts, whose grounds he had designed. He described antebellum Southern poverty in his book Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom. This man, who had no experience in design at the time, met his English-born partner thanks to his mentor Andrew Jackson Downing. With that partner, this architect used the Greensward Plan to create a location with such landmarks as Bethesda Fountain and the Sheep Meadow. He partnered with Calvert Vaux to create Prospect Park. For 10 points, name this American landscape architect who was a co- designer of Central Park.
Le Corbusier [accept Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris]
This architect produced a scale of proportions based on a six-foot tall man and the golden ratio, his modulor system. The Curutchet House and the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts are among this architect’s buildings, and he planned a “contemporary city” of sixty-story skyscrapers. This architect designed buildings in Chandigarh, India, where he built the Open Hand Monument. Pilotis, roof gardens, and long horizontal sliding windows are included in this architect’s “Five Points of Architecture” introduced in his book, Towards a New Architecture. For 10 points, name this Swiss-French architect who designed the Villa Savoye.
People’s Republic of China [or Zhongguo; or Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo; or PRC; do not accept “Republic of China”]
An architect from this country designed the master plan for the Ordos 100 project in a neighboring country. An artist from this country created a facade made of children’s backpacks for the Munich exhibit So Sorry and, for another exhibit, covered a large area of the Tate Modern Turbine Hall in hand-painted porcelain sunflower seeds. A ballet produced in this country features a rifle drill and a bayonet dance in its second act, is called The (*) Red Detachment of Women, and appeared in a John Adams opera. An architect from this country collaborated with Herzog and de Meuron on its Olympic stadium. For 10 points, name this home country of Ai Weiwei, in which the Eight Model Plays replaced the older Beijing opera.
Japan
A park in this country is home to a peace flame that has burned continuously since 1964 and an arch-like Memorial Cenotaph. An art movement from this country contended that buildings should be designed the same way organic life grows. This country is the home of the Metabolism movement and a building with an illuminated cross as its centerpiece, known as the Church of Light. This country’s tallest structure is a broadcasting tower called the Skytree. A man-made island in this country is home to a Renzo Piano-designed airport terminal. A Mayan Revival style building in this country survived a devastating 1923 earthquake. For 10 points, name this country where Frank Lloyd Wright built the Imperial Hotel, the birthplace of architect Tadao Ando.
Washington, D.C.
A cathedral in this city contains a lunar rock in its stained glass “Space Window.” The Mausoleum-inspired House of the Temple was designed by John Russell Pope for the Freemason headquarters here. Pope also designed an art gallery in this city whose Modernist east building was designed by I.M. Pei. William Thornton was the original architect of the building at the meeting point of this city’s four quadrants. Thomas Walter expanded that building, tripling the height of its center dome. A memorial designed by Henry Bacon here contains Daniel French’s monumental statue of a sitting president. For 10 points, name this home to the Lincoln Memorial and U.S. Capitol.
Domes
The royal chapel at the church of Les Invalides features one of these designed by Jules Mansart. In Islamic architecture, muqarnas often decorate these structures and the squinches supporting them. The Mycenaeans constructed the Treasury of Atreus as a corbled one of these. Another of these structures is supported by four buttressed pendentives in the Hagia Sophia, and the one at Florence Cathedral is topped with a cupola and was designed by Brunelleschi. Coffers and an oculus help reduce the weight of this structure at the Pantheon in Rome. For 10 points, name these architectural elements, one of which sits prominently atop the U.S. Capitol.
Constantin Brancusi
This artist created an oak monument called “King of Kings” for his “Temple of Meditation,” which was never built. This artist’s other creations include an oval-shaped head lying on its side and a phallic depiction of a woman. The Sleeping Muse and Princess X were created by this artist, who also sculpted twelve chairs surrounding a limestone disk and a stack of 17 (*) rhomboidal modules as parts of an ensemble he created to commemorate World War I heroes at Targu-Jiu. This sculptor of The Table of Silence and The Endless Column created a series of works that portrays the nature of flight. For ten points, identify this Romanian sculptor of Bird in Space.
Maesta of Duccio
This artwork was removed from its original location to make way for a set of sculptures by Francesco di Giorgio, leading Giorgio Vasari unable to ascertain its location. Its largest section unusually features the child martyr Crescentius in a red robe kneeling to the Virgin. A pure black-bodied Satan tempts Jesus Christ, who towers over several massive cities in a fragment of this masterpiece that is now housed at the Frick. A portion of this artwork in which Isaiah and Ezekiel flank a Nativity scene featuring sixteen angels can be found in the U.S. National Gallery. Scenes from the childhood of Christ comprise the front predella of this artwork, while the story of the Passion of Christ is told on numerous panels of its back. This painting and the Rucellai Madonna are the only two works of their artist that can be dated. For 10 points, name this high altarpiece of the Siena Cathedral, a 1308 masterpiece of Duccio.
Lions
A red sandstone sculpture of one of these creatures commemorates the Siege of Belfort during the FrancoPrussian War and was designed by FrĂ©dĂ©ric Bartholdi. A relief sculpture of two of these creatures flanking a pillar is the namesake of the main gate to the ancient city of Mycenae. Four bronze sculptures of these creatures designed by Sir Edwin Landseer surround Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square. A bronze sculpture of a winged one of these animals stands atop a granite column in Saint Mark’s Square and has become a symbol of the city of Venice. For 10 points, name this feline animal, fu sculptures of which guard the Forbidden City in Beijing.
The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huangdi
The original plan for this art collection involved surrounding it with a hundred rivers of simulated mercury. One work in this collection features a man who sits beneath an umbrella and holds the reins of four horses. Elements in this art collection were surrounded by bronze cranes and ducks, and faced towards conquered Eastern states in four pits. The belly size and height of people in this collection indicates their role. This collection was found by farmers drilling for a well in Xian (“SHEE-ahn”) in 1974. For 10 points, identify this group of more than eight thousand unique sculpted men and horses which protects the tomb of China’s Qin Shihuang.
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa [or Transverberation of Saint Teresa]
This sculpture is accompanied by sets of four sculpted heads in niches on the left and right walls perpendicular to it, showing the reactions of its patrons to the scene. This sculpture is framed by an aedicule with six dark marble columns and a white triangular roof. This sculpture behind the altar of the Cornaro chapel also contains bronze rays representing streams of light, hanging down from its top. On the left of this Baroque sculpture’s central white-marble cloud, a young angel stands holding an arrow. For 10 points, name this Bernini sculpture depicting the vision of an open-mouthed, reclining nun.
The Isenheim Altarpiece
In one section of this work, an ankylosaurus-like creature sits near a sore-covered figure with a distended belly who may represent an ergotism sufferer. In other sections of this painting, a pointing man stands next to the words “illum oportet crescere me autem minui” and a monster peeks through a window at a man atop a pedestal. The middle of another of its sections features a concert of (*) disturbing angels to the left of the Nativity. Sculptures by Nikolaus Hagenauer are contained within its two sets of wings, which display the Crucifixion when closed and the Temptation of St. Anthony when fully open. For 10 points, name this altarpiece whose creation inspired an opera and symphony by Paul Hindemith, the most famous work of Matthias GrĂĽnewald.
Apollo
The Capitoline Museums contain a statue of Pothos by Scopas that was restored as a version of this figure. The east pediment of the Siphnian treasury depicts a struggle between Heracles and this figure. Albrecht DĂĽrer copied the pose of a sculpture of this figure for that of Adam in his engraving Adam and Eve. Johann Joachim Winckelmann raved about the perfection of that sculpture of this (*) god, which gets its name from a palace owned by Pope Julius II. It was originally thought that all kouros statues represented this god, who leans on a tree and prepares to capture or kill a lizard in a sculpture by Praxiteles. For 10 points, name this Greek god whose most famous sculptural depiction is found in the Belvedere palace.
Bronze
A sculpture created out of this material was given the name Canon by its artist as a standard for human perfection. That Polykleitos work is now known as Doryphoros, or “Spear-Bearer”. An Art Deco sculpture by Lee Lawrie made of this material sits in front of the Rockefeller Center and depicts Atlas holding up the world. Another work made of this material portraying a man struggling to stay on a rearing horse is Remington’s Bronco Buster. A 15th century sculpture made of this metal is the first free-standing nude since ancient times, and shows the title figure standing over the head of Goliath. For 10 points, Donatello’s David is made of what alloy of copper and tin?
Doors of/in the Florence Baptistery [or doors of/in the Battistero di San Giovanni; or doors of/in the Baptistery of St. John; accept gates instead of doors; prompt on the Florence Baptistry; prompt on the Battistero di San Giovanni]
Julian Bell has remarked that one of these works was subject to improper casting, making it seem as if an arm is trapped in stone. Francesco Rustici sculpted a statue of John the Baptist which stands above one of these works. Andrea Pisano used rosettes and lions’ heads to frame 28 quatrefoil panels for the southernmost of these works. A precursor to one of these works shows a ram on a mountain while a foreshortened angel approaches a draped Abraham. The Cloth Importers Guild sponsored a contest to depict the Sacrifice of Isaac on these structures, which was won by a then-unknown goldsmith. For 10 points, identify these entryways to a Florence building, one of which is decorated by Lorenzo Ghiberti’s The Gates of Paradise.
Frederic (Sackrider) Remington
This person briefly departed from his usual subject matter after a discussion with Charles Darwin, showing a person with ape features in his Paleolithic Man, and he also produced two busts, The Sergeant and The Savage. He portrayed hand-to-hand combat in The Old Dragoons of 1850, and he made one work showing a knocked-down horse during a polo match. This person showed a lone rider in Trooper of the Plains 1868. One of his works showing a horse on its hind legs about to get whipped by its rider is often on display in the Oval Office. Name this American sculptor of The Bronco Buster.
Venus de Milo
Salvador Dali made a version of this statue “aux tiroirs” (“oh tee-RAHR”), or “with drawers,” and also included twenty-eight multicolored versions of this statue in his painting “Hallucinogenic Toreador.” A plinth that was found with this statue reads [*] “Andros son of Menides, citizen of Antioch on the Maeander, made this.” Drawings of this statue indicate that it held a golden apple in its left hand, and this sculpture was once mistakenly attributed to Praxiteles. For 10 points, name this sculpture that is missing two arms, depicting the Roman goddess of love, which is displayed in the Louvre.
Laocoon Group [or Laocoon and His Sons]
Art critic Johann Winkelmann described the “great and tranquil soul” of this work’s central figure, which led Gotthold Lessing to claim that literature and art cannot be criticized with the same theories. Cornachini incorrectly restored the right arm of one figure by making it point upward, it is currently located in the Belvedere of the Vatican. Found in Rome in 1506, it is attributed to three sculptors from Rhodes named Athenodorus, Agesander, and Polydorus. For 10 points, identify this work which depicts serpents strangling a certain priest from Troy.
Virgil Thomson
In a suite by this composer, a hexatonic folk tune for English horn plays over pulsing pizzicato strings in the opening of the “Super-Sadness” movement. He included the melodies to “Laredo” and “Git Along Little Dogies” in the “Cowboy Songs”movement of a film score that he wrote for Pare Lorentz. One of his operas concludes with a “Funeral Hymn” beginning with the words “Where is where.” This composer, who derived his Acadian Songs and Dances from the film score to Louisiana Story, wrote the score to The Plow that Broke the Plains. In another of his operas, one character describes a Vision of the Holy Ghost with the words “Pigeons on the grass, alas.” He served from 1940-1954 as the music critic for the New York Herald Tribune. His collaborations with Gertrude Stein include operas about Teresa of Avila and Susan B. Anthony. For 10 points, name this composer of The Mother of Us All and Four Saints in Three Acts.
Achille-Claude Debussy
This composer opened a piece for solo piano with a chromatically descending whole tone cadenza and used a series of open fifths to evoke church bells in a programmatic prelude depicting a “Sunken Cathedral.” This composer of “The Happy Island” included a piece parodying a leitmotif from Richard Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, “Golliwogg’s Cakewalk”, in his Children’s Corner suite. A chromatic flute passage begins a work by this man inspired by a Ste?phane Mallarme? poem, while a piece contained in his Suite Bergamasque was famously inspired by moonlight. For 10 points, name this composer of Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and “Clair de Lune.”
Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev
This composer dedicated his second piano sonata to Maximilian Schmidthof after Schmidthof committed suicide, while this composer’s seventh piano sonata features a “Precipitato” movement containing repeating B-flat triads. This man composed a work Haydn’s style, his Classical Symphony, as well as a Scythian Suite. In another work, gunshots of hunters are heard in the timpani and bass drum, and a duck is swallowed alive. In that piece by this composer of Love for Three Oranges, the duck is represented by an oboe, while a clarinet plays the cat and the old grandfather is represented by the bassoon. For 10 points, name this Russian composer of Peter and the Wolf.
Philip Glass
As an outlet for his work, this composer founded a namesake ensemble comprised of three keyboards, some winds, and a soprano who generally only sings solfege. This composer wrote the score to a film in which the liftoff of a Saturn V rocket is followed by footage of an Atlas rocket exploding; an earlier section of that score contains the song “Pruitt Igoe.” (*) Time-lapse images comprise much of that film titled after the Hopi word for “life out of balance.” This composer wrote a “Portrait Trilogy” of operas and, along with Steve Reich, John Adams, and Terry Riley, is one of the major American minimalists. For 10 points, name this composer of the score for Koyaanisqatsi and the opera Einstein on the Beach.
Adagio for Strings
This piece was described by its conductor at its premiere as “simplice e bella.” Orchestrated by William Strickland for the solo organ, this work begins with the first violins playing a B flat in unison and grew out of its composer’s String Quartet in B Minor, Opus 11. Inspired by Virgil’s Georgics, this work was later used in its composer’s setting of his choral work Agnus Dei. This piece was premiered under conductor Arturo Toscanini in and was played during the announcements of the deaths of Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy. For 10 points, identify this work for string orchestra by the composer of Vanessa, Samuel Barber.
Kingdom of Spain [or Reino de España; accept Republic of Spain or República Española; accept First Spanish Republic or Primera República Española; accept Second Spanish Republic or Segunda República Española; accept Spanish State or Estado Español]
One composer from this country created the virtuosic Zigeunerweisen for violin and orchestra. A work set in this country features a Ritual Fire Dance, and in another work set in this country, a magistrate imprisons a miller so he can sleep with his wife. Those ballets are Love, the Magician and The Three Cornered Hat. The French composer Édouard Lalo wrote a Symphonie for violin and orchestra using themes from this country, and an opera set in this country includes the Habanera chorus and depicts Don JosĂ©’s murder of the title gypsy girl, Carmen. For 10 points, name this home country of Pablo de Sarasate, Manuel de Falla, and the composer of the Tango in D, Isaac AlbĂ©niz.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich
The first movement of this man’s fifth symphony concludes with the celesta playing chromatic scales. That symphony, subtitled “An Artist’s Creative Response to Just Criticism,” was composed after an opera by this composer was criticized in a Pravda article. This composer of Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District set five Yevgeny Yevtushenko poems in a work commemorating the massacre of Ukrainian Jews. Another of this composer’s symphonies mourns the deaths of Soviet citizens during a German offensive and includes the “Invasion” theme. For 10 points, name this Soviet composer of the Babi Yar and Leningrad symphonies.
Johannes Brahms
The final movement of this composer’s fourth symphony is a passacaglia featuring a theme from Bach’s cantata “For Thee, O Lord, I long.” This composer based one piece on a csárdás (“CHAR-dash”) by BĂ©la KĂ©ler (“BA-la KA-ler”) in a set of works for piano four-hands. He concluded one work with the drinking song “Gaudeamus igitur,” written after receiving an honorary doctorate from the University of Breslau. This composer of the Academic Festival Overture also included a libretto from the Luther Bible in a piece that commemorates the deaths of his mother and Robert Schumann. For 10 points, name this German composer of the Hungarian Dances and A German Requiem who composed a famous lullaby.
Symphonie Fantastique: Épisode de la vie d’un Artiste en cinq parties [or Fantastic Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts]
A sequel to this work, LĂ©lio, portrays the central character awakening and conducting an orchestra. In the third movement of this work, the English horn and oboe depict a conversation between two Alpine shepherds while the timpani interrupts with claps of thunder. The strings play col legno in the final movement of this work, in which the bassoons and tubas play a sombre Dies Irae, followed by the trombones, as part of a witches’ sabbath. The idĂ©e fixe appears in all five of its movements and represents the composer’s love for the actress Harriet Smithson. For 10 points, name this symphony by Hector Berlioz about a young artist poisoned with opium.
John Towner Williams
The lyrics to one piece by this composer are sung in Sanskrit but based on a traditional Welsh hymn. This composer of Duel of the Fates wrote a prelude and variation of a Shaker hymn in the Air and Simple Gifts quartet, which was performed at the 2009 presidential inauguration. One piece by this man simply consists of the strings repeating two bass notes a half-step apart. This man also composed the Olympic Fanfare and Theme. He more recently composed the score to the movie Lincoln and is the second-most nominated person for an Academy Award. For 10 points, name this American composer of film scores, such as Jaws, the Indiana Jones series, and the Star Wars saga.
Rhapsody in Blue
One theme in this work, later quoted in the composer’s songs “Somebody Loves Me” and “Embraceable You,” is left unresolved before transitioning into a cadenza. This work subdivides the eighth-note rhythm into a three-threetwo arrangement after the opening ritornello. The composer altered the beginning of this work according to a rendition played by Ross Gorman during rehearsal. Commissioned by Paul Whiteman for the concert “An Experiment in Modern Music,” this work was inspired by the composer’s train ride to Boston. For 10 points, name this 1924 composition for piano and jazz band by George Gershwin that opens with a solo clarinet glissando.
Marches
Compositions in this genre sometimes feature a “breakstrain” section, also called a “dogfight,” which typically pits groups of instruments against each other in statement-response fashion. Audiences in Vienna traditionally clap as a piece in this genre named for Radetzky is performed. The final repeat of the trio of one piece in this genre contains a famous solo for piccolo. A composer best known for writing these is the namesake of an instrument similar to a tuba, and that man wrote ones titled “The Washington Post,” and “Stars and Stripes Forever.” For 10 points, name this type of musical composition often scored for military bands, and of which John Philip Sousa was the “king.”
Robert Alexander Schumann
This composer included “First Loss” and “The Happy Farmer” in a piano collection written for his daughters. In another work, he included slow septuplets against triplets in a movement depicting “Eusebius.” That work by this composer includes musical depictions of Chopin, Paganini, and his then-fiancĂ© Ernestine von Fricken, and is based on the letters of the name her hometown, Asch. This composer of Album for the Young included “Träumerei” (“troy-mur-EYE”) in his Scenes from Childhood. For 10 points, name this German Romantic composer of Carnaval and symphonies nicknamed “Spring” and “Rhenish,” whose A minor piano concerto was premiered by his wife, Clara.
Joseph-Maurice Ravel
The theme for the “Passacaille” third movement of this composer’s A minor piano trio is based on the first theme of its second movement, “Pantoum.” This composer wrote an orchestral “choreographic poem” as an homage to Johann Strauss, Jr. This composer included a “Feria” and a “PrĂ©lude Ă  la nuit” in his Rapsodie espagnole. Another of his orchestral works begins with a flute solo over a snare drum ostinato that continues throughout the whole piece, which just repeats the same two tunes while getting louder and louder. For 10 points, name this French composer of La Valse, Daphnis et ChloĂ© and BolĂ©ro.
Hungary
In Die Fledermaus, Rosalinde sings about the music of this country in the aria “Klänge der Heimat,” which takes the form of a czárdás [CHAR-dahsh], a folk dance from this country. One composer from this country began a piece with a “musical sneeze”; the piece is the Háry János Suite, and the composer is Zoltán Kodály. Brahms imitated the music of this country in a set of dances originally written for piano four-hands. A composer from this country wrote the Faust Symphony and imitated the sound of its gypsy bands in a set of virtuosic works for solo piano. For 10 points name this home country of Franz Liszt, who wrote nineteen rhapsodies named for it.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
This composer collected a set of concertos dedicated to Vettor Delfino in his La Stravaganza. The Assyrian king Nebuchadnezzar sends Holofernes to seize the town of Bethulia in his only-surviving oratorio, Juditha triumphans. He wrote several compositions for the Ospedale della PietĂ . Two violas in another of his works represent (*) barking dogs, and that set includes sections on singing cuckoos and a sleepy shepherd. Nicknamed “The Red Priest,” this composer wrote The Contest Between Harmony and Invention, which includes “Spring” and “Winter” concertos. For ten points, name this Italian Baroque composer of The Four Seasons.
Requiem mass [prompt on “mass,” “mass for the dead,” and “mass of the dead”]
One musical composition of this kind presented an A, B-flat, A motif in its seventh movement, which ends with the “Hostias.” In addition to that one by Hector Berlioz, another composition of this type by Gabriel Faure has a solo soprano in its fourth movement. One written by another composer honored Alessandro Manzoni and ends with a (*) “Libera me” segment. Franz Sussmayr completed a D-minor composition of this kind, which commonly includes sections like “Pie Jesu,” “Kyrie,” and “Dies Irae.” For ten points, identify this “mass for the dead,” an unfinished one of which was written by Mozart.
The Carnival of the Animals [or Le carnaval des animaux]
The second movement of this musical piece borrows from a theme composed by Jean-Philippe Rameau. Two violins in another section of this work alternate between playing very high and low notes, and another movement features musicians practicing their scales. This composition, which features sections like (*) “People with long ears” and “Pianists”, alludes to “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” in a movement that uses the rattling of a xylophone to represent the noises of a skeleton and references its composer’s earlier work, Danse Macabre. For ten points, identify this piece by Camille Saint-Saens with movements like “The Elephant,” “Fossils,” and “The Swan.”
Messiah
This musical composition asks “Why do the nations so furiously rage together?” in a section about “The Rejection.” Mozart eliminated the organ continuo in his adaptation of it. This work includes a Sinfony movement in the style of a French Overture and a pastoral Pifa movement, which describes the annunciation of the (*) shepherds. Charles Jennens wrote the scriptural text to accompany this work. During the title figure’s “Ultimate Victory,” the choir sings that “he shall reign forever and ever” in the Hallelujah Chorus. For ten points, name this oratorio that commemorates the story of Jesus, composed by George Frideric Handel.
John Cage
This composer did not allow a company to stage his Europera 4 without staging his Europera 3. He used text from Finnegans Wake in his works Nowth upon Nacht, The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs, and Roaratorio. This composer also created a series of five pieces called Imaginary Landscape, the fourth of which uses twelve radios. One of his pieces was first performed by David Tudor, who sat at a piano without playing it. Name this avant-garde composer of Four Minutes, Thirty-Three Seconds.
Sergei Rachmaninoff
This composer wrote a piece based on an Arnold Bocklin painting and the song Krisolov based on “The Pied Piper.” His 2nd piano concerto [kone-CHEER-toe] has a 2nd section opening with slow chords labeled “Adagio sostenuto [ah-DAH-jyo soes-teh-NOO-toe] PiĂą animato”, and he made cuts to his 3rd piano concerto to make it easier to play. The influence of Rimsky-Korsakov can be found in this composer’s Symphonic Dances. Name this composer who wrote 24 variations of the 24th and final caprice [kuh-PREES] in his Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini.
Toccata and Fugue in D minor [or BWV 565]
Many prefer Ferruccio Busoni’s arpeggio-less transcription of this piece to the comparably popular one by Carl Tausig. Different theories posit that this piece was originally written for unaccompanied violin and that its unusual features owe to the limitations of an instrument the composer had to work with in Anhalt-Cothen. A different piece with the same name, key, and composer as this one is nicknamed the “Dorian.” This piece begins with a mordant A in both hands, followed by a rapid descending G-F-E-D-C sharp, then D. The contrapuntal second title portion of this D minor piece is interspersed with the more virtuosic style of the first title section. For 10 points, name this spooky organ piece composed by J.S. Bach.
Charles Ives
This composer parodied “polite salon music” with an interlude for solo viola and piano in one of his symphonies, which calls for a “distant choir” of strings in its fourth movement. Optional parts for the flute and viola appear in a piano sonata by this composer, which was published immediately after the explanatory “Essays Before a Sonata.” In another piece by him, increasingly dissonant woodwinds represent “Fighting Answerers” struggling in vain against a solo trumpet. Writers such as the Alcotts, Thoreau, and Emerson title the movements of this composer’s Concord Sonata. Another of his pieces pays homage to Robert Gould Shaw and his black regiment. For 10 points, name this composer of The Unanswered Question and Three Places in New England.
Czech Republic [or Ceska Republika]
A composer born in this modern-day country preferred the name Fantaisies symphoniques for his sixth symphony, and produced a double concerto for two string orchestras, pianos, and timpani. A tone poem that depicts the sounding of a hunting horn signaling for the slaughter of men by warrior women was composed by another denizen of this country, who included a high, sustained harmonic E played by the first violin to signify his tinnitus in his string quartet From My Life. Another of its composers produced a popular seventh Humoresque, and drew on Native American and African-American music for his New World Symphony. For 10 points, name this home country of Bohuslav Martinu, Bedrich Smetana, and Antonin Dvorak.
Cool jazz [or West Coast jazz until “California” is read; prompt on West Coast jazz after “California” is read until “West Coast” is read]
Some trace the origin of this style to the album Crosscurrents by Lennie Tristano. “La Nevada” begins a 1960 album by the Gil Evans Orchestra titled for their departure from this style. This style was preferred by the composer of the album It Could Happen to You and namesake of “Chetty’s Song,” Chet Baker. It’s not bossa nova, but Gerry Mulligan’s relocation to California and the presence of Stan Getz helped establish the West Coast’s reputation as home to this style’s namesake “school.” This style was showcased on a classical-music-inspired 1957 compilation album recorded by the nonet of Miles Davis. For 10 points, name this relaxed style of jazz music whose Birth was supposedly represented by that Davis album.
Etude
Muzio Clementi wrote a collection of these titled Gradus ad Parnassum. One of these works begins with an E-E-E-E-F-E-C-E theme, while another was described by Robert Schumann as an “Aeolian Harp.” Gyorgy Ligeti composed one titled after Brancusi’s “Infinite Column,” and Carl Czerny is remembered most for this type of composition. Frederic Chopin composed a notable one titled “Winter Wind,” as well as one nicknamed “Black Key,” but his most famous one appeared during the November Uprising of 1831 and is titled “Revolutionary.” For 10 points, name this type of musical composition often used to strengthen technique whose name comes from the French word for “study.”
Frank Sinatra [Francis Albert Sinatra]
This man was followed around without his consent by journalist Gay Talese for several months as Talese wrote an article for Esquire titled “[this man] Has a Cold”. He re-recorded a version of the song “High Hopes” to support a presidential campaign. Gennadi Gerasimov compared one of this man’s songs to the Soviet Union’s abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine, leading to a (*) new Soviet diplomatic policy named for this man. After helping organize an Inaugural Gala, this musician had a falling out with President Kennedy due to his relationship with the American Mafia. Peter Lawford and Sammy Davis, Jr. joined him in an informal group of performers named the “Rat Pack.” For 10 points, name this American singer of “Theme from New York, New York” and “My Way.”
Harpsichords [or cembalo; or cembali]
A solo piece for this instrument ends with a movement that quotes folk songs such as “I have been away from you for so long” and “Cabbages and turnips have driven me away.” A two-manual variety of this instrument plays the Italian Concerto. A solo piece for this instrument ends with a quodlibet (QUAD- lee-butt) and includes nine canons, one every three movements. This instrument plays a lengthy cadenza in the first movement of the fifth (*) Brandenburg Concerto. A solo piece for this instrument consists of thirty variations on a G major aria theme. This instrument cannot create dynamics because it plucks the strings rather than hammering them like the piano. For 10 points, the Goldberg Variations were written for what Baroque keyboard instrument?
D [accept Re]
This note’s Dorian mode contains only white keys on the piano. This note’s major key was “the key of glory” for Baroque trumpets until the invention of the valve trumpet. The entirety of The Art of Fugue is written in this note’s minor key, as is the first movement of Sibelius’ violin concerto. Tchaikovsky, Brahms, and Beethoven all wrote their violin concertos in this note’s major key. Mozart’s Requiem and the beginning of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony are set in this note’s minor key. This note’s natural minor scale contains only B-flat, and its major scale contains F-sharp and C-sharp. For 10 points, name this musical note after which Pachelbel titled a Canon, a whole step above C.
Pianoforte
One jazz musician who played this instrument characteristically included rapid descending whole-tone scales in his improvisation. That player of this instrument composed the rhythmically challenging standard “Nutty.” The namesake quartet of another player of this instrument recorded rhythmically complex songs like “Blue Rondo Ă  la Turk.” One player of this instrument wrote songs like “Well, You Needn’t,” “Epistrophy” and “Round Midnight,” and another is usually credited with a song actually written by saxophonist Paul Desmond, “Take Five.” For 10 points, name this instrument played by jazz musicians like Thelonious Monk and Dave Brubeck, a keyboard instrument.
Harp
Alphonse Hasselmann may have finished a piece for this solo instrument dedicated to him, a D flat major impromptu by Gabriel Faure. The ergonomics of playing this instrument are addressed in the Salzedo method. Two of them lead the waltz in the movement “Un bal” from Symphonie fantastique. This is the nickname of Beethoven’s E-flat major tenth string quartet. Mozart’s only piece for this instrument is a double concerto pairing it with the flute. A violin solo accompanied by this instrument represents Scheherazade’s theme in the piece by Rimsky- Korsakov. A glissando played by this instrument contributes to the dreaminess of Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. For 10 points, name these tall instruments with forty-seven strings.
B flat [or B-flat major; or B-flat minor]
This is the first note of the tone row on which Webern’s String Quartet is based. Brahms’s Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel is based on a harpsichord suite in this note’s major key. The Beethoven string quartet whose last movement was initially the Grosse Fuge is in this note’s major key. Chopin used this note’s minor key for a piano sonata whose somber third movement gives the piece the nickname the “Funeral March.” There are five flats in the minor key of this note, which is what the C played on a trumpet or clarinet sounds like. This note is the first flat added in the circle of fifths. For 10 points, name this note that is the only accidental in the key of F major, and which in equal temperament is the same as A sharp.
minimalism [or minimal music]
A piece in this style is based on a cycle of eleven chords and features a secondary rhythm kept by the human breath of the voices and winds. One of the first pieces in this style requires its performer, “traditionally…a beautiful girl,” to arbitrarily play fifty-three phrases of repeated eighth notes. As music critic for The Spectator, Michael Nyman coined the name for this style. Henryk Gorecki and tintinnabulation-enthusiast Arvo Part are the foremost exponents of its “holy” or “sacred” type. This style, which was first used by La Monte Young, is better exemplified by Music for 18 Musicians and In C by Steve Reich and Terry Riley. For 10 points, name this simple, repetitive musical style favored by John Adams and Philip Glass.
Mariachi
One genre of this kind of music is played by the “Devil’s Trumpets” and originated from a “Scottish dance” in Bohemia. In this kind of music, the melody and melodic harmony parts will sometimes play a third apart, resulting in dissonance with the armonia portion of the ensemble. The “son” music is a precursor to this kind of music, which was popularized by Linda Ronstadt in her album My Father’s Songs. This kind of music is played by six violins, two or three trumpets, singers, guitars, vihuelas, and guitarrons. Performers of this music, which originated in Jalisco, dress like cowboys known as charros. For 10 points, name this Mexican folk music played by orchestras and bands.
Miles (Dewey) Davis (III)
This person’s early fusion work often featured guitarist John McLaughlin, who is the namesake of one of this musician’s songs. McLaughlin is featured, along with pianists Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock, on this person’s album In a Silent Way. This performer often worked with pianist and arranger Gil Evans, and they featured the second movement of Joaquin Rodrigo’s composition Concierto de Aranjuez [ah-rahn-HWEZZ] on the album Sketches of Spain. Name this trumpeter who placed the songs “Blue in Green”, “So What”, and “Freddie Freeloader” on his album Kind of Blue.
Tosca
In Act II of this opera, a gavotte is heard from outside the palace during a victory celebration in honor of General Melas. The male lead contrasts the blue eyes of an “unknown beauty” he has seen in church with the black eyes of his lover in “Recondita Armonia.” The villain uses a fan to arouse the title character’s jealousy and convince her to betray (*) Angelotti in exchange for her lover’s life. That title character asks God why she has suffered such misfortune in “Vissi d’arte, vissi d’amore,” and jumps to her death after realizing that Cavaradossi’s “fake” execution was real after all. For 10 points, name this opera in which the title singer stabs the wicked police chief Scarpia, by Giacomo Puccini.
Pat Nixon [or Thelma; or Mrs. Nixon; prompt on Nixon]
This character predicts that “a time will come when luxury dissolves into the atmosphere like a perfume.” This character ignores two warnings to “watch your step,” joyful that “at last the weather’s warming up.” This character notes that “I don’t daydream and don’t look back” after being given a model elephant by glass factory workers. While watching a performance, she rushes onstage to help a peasant girl seemingly being whipped to death. While at the Summer Palace, this character sings the aria “This is prophetic.” This non-coloratura soprano attends a performance of the opera The Red Detachment of Women alongside Chiang Ch’ing, the wife of Mao Zedong. For 10 points, name this John Adams character, a First Lady who visits China.
Tango
An annual festival devoted to this dance is held in the Finnish town of Seinajoki, which was hit by a worldwide craze over this dance in 1913. The International and American styles of this dance are characterized by an 8-count basic step. Music for this dance often features a bandoneĂłn, a type of accordion imported from Germany. The French-born Carlos Gardel was its leading vocalist during the early 20th century, and its popular tunes include (*) “El Choclo” and “La Cumparsita,” the latter of which is danced by Jack Lemmon in Some Like it Hot. Astor Piazzola blended it with jazz and classical music, and it was popularized in the U.S. by Rudolph Valentino in Four Horseman of the Apocalypse. For 10 points, name this partner dance from Argentina and Uruguay.
The Rite of Spring [or Le Sacre du printemps; or Vesna svyashchennaya]
Five bassoons represent the final prayers of five village elders near the end of this work. The composer placed grace notes in the opening melody to imitate natural breaks in human voices. At the beginning of this work’s premiere, one audience member called for someone to get a dentist after seeing the initial positions of the dancers. This work’s last bass notes spell out the word “dead” as the central character’s neck snaps and she is sacrificed. Part one of this work is titled “The Adoration of the Earth” and begins with a bassoon solo at an unrecognizably high register. For 10 points, name this ballet by Igor Stravinsky that caused a riot at its premiere.
Der Ring des Nibelungen [or The Ring of the Nibelung; or the Ring Cycle; accept Götterdämmerung or Twilight of the Gods before “title object”]
In this work, the appearance of ravens distracts one character, causing his death at the hand of Hagen, who seeks the title object. Previously in this work, that character gains the ability to understand birds from tasting dragon blood and crosses a circle of flame to wake another character from a deep sleep. In this work, Fafner and Fasolt demand Freia as payment for the construction of Valhalla, but settle for Rhine gold taken by Wotan and Loge from its original thief, Alberich. In this work, the sword Nothung can only be forged by the slayer of Fafner, Siegfried. For 10 points, name this opera cycle by Richard Wagner about the title cursed golden object forged by Alberich.
Don Giovanni
In the Prologue of Offenbach’s Tales of Hoffmann, Nicklausse sings an excerpt from this earlier opera, which the opera house next door is performing. That same excerpt from this opera is the basis for the twenty-second of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations. In its aria “Il mio tesoro,” Don Ottavio swears vengeance for the murder of Donna Anna’s father. At the end of this opera, a statue of the Commendatore comes to life and drags the title character to hell. In its “Catalogue Aria,” Leporello recounts the numerous romantic conquests of his master, this opera’s title character. For 10 points, name this Mozart opera about a legendary seducer.
William Tell
In this opera, the fisherman Ruodi refuses to take Leuthold on his boat due to the powerful current of the water. Later in this work, Mathilde sings “Sombre foret” to express her love for Arnold, who vows revenge for the murder of his father, Melchthal. One character in this opera tells Jemmy “Sois immobile.” The Austrian governor (*) Gesler expresses great desire to dump the title character in Lake Lucerne, but he later dies as that character shouts, “Let Switzerland breathe!” For ten points, name this opera by Rossini, which is based on a play by Schiller in which the title character shoots an apple on his son’s head.
Tristan and Isolde [or Tristan und Isolde; or Tristan and Isolda; or Tristran and Ysolt]
The heroine of this opera instructs her servant to extinguish a torch as a signal that it is safe for another character to approach. The prelude to this opera begins with a pianissimo passage in the cellos that is often called the “grief”, “longing”, or “suffering” motif. Kurwenal and Melot are both killed in its third act, which takes place at Kareol in (*) Brittany. The prelude to its first act introduces a chord made of the notes F, B, G sharp, and D-sharp, which is often named after its male protagonist. It closes with the singing of the “Liebestod” aria by the heroine, an Irish maid who was kidnapped as a bride for King Marke. For 10 points, name this opera whose two title characters fall in love after drinking a magic potion, a work of Richard Wagner.
Jacques Offenbach
Many of the title roles of this composer’s operas were created by the soprano Hortense Schneider. The traveler Baron Gondremarck attempts to arrange a liaison with Metella in this man’s first opera with a contemporary setting, La vie parisienne. His final opera is divided into three acts named “Olympia”, “Antonia”, and “Giulietta”, the last of which opens with “Belle nuit, o nuit d’amour”, a famous (*) barcarolle. The character of Public Opinion introduces his most famous operetta, a Christoph Willibald Gluck parody which closes with the “Galop Infernal”, whose tune became closely associated with the can-can. For 10 points, name this French composer of the operas Tales of Hoffman and Orpheus in the Underworld.
West Side Story
A song in this musical repeatedly uses an E-flat-A tritone, ironically described as “the most beautiful sound I ever heard.”Another song from this musical alternates between 6/8 and 3/4 time for a verbal duel with a habanera theme, eventually ending “Everyone there will have moved” to the title location. This musical’s love theme is reprised during preparations for a “rumble”, after which the leads sing “Somewhere.” They had earlier sung “Tonight” atop a fire escape. This musical includes the song “America”, in which Anita and Maria mock the other Sharks. For 10 points, name this musical inspired by Romeo and Juliet and composed by Leonard Bernstein.
Rigoletto
In this opera’s first scene, the main character mocks Count Ceprano while his boss seduces Ceprano’s wife. A character sings “Caro nome” after meeting a character she believes to be Gaultier Malde, and this opera begins with the singing of “Questa o quella” or “This woman or that.” At an Inn, the aria (*) “La donna e mobile” is sung in this opera by the Duke of Mantua about how fickle women are. The title character’s daughter, Gilda, sacrifices herself in this opera to save the Duke’s life from hitmen hired by her father, who fears a curse enacted by a royal courtier. For 10 points, name this Verdi opera about an angry hunchbacked jester.
The Pirates of Penzance; or, The Slave of Duty
One character in this work praises her “family descent” before lamenting that “A crisis, now, affairs are coming to!” This occurs after that character learns that her lover will not return to her until 1940 due to an unfortunate loophole in an apprenticeship contract. A recurring group of characters in this work sings “tarantara,” but their rivals approach “with catlike tread.” This work ends with a revelation that the title criminals are “all noblemen who have gone wrong,” which allows Frederic to marry Mabel. For 10 points, name this opera which features a character who claims to be “the very model of a modern Major-General,” composed by Gilbert and Sullivan.
Turandot
At the beginning of this work, a crowd invokes the “pallid face” of the moon and asks it to hurry, while a chorus of servants proclaims that “work is never lacking.” Later in this work, three men enter with lanterns and address the tiger, “grand marshal of the heavens,” before bidding farewell to the “divine race.” Court ladies hush the crowd before a parade of the ghosts of executed lovers like the Prince of Persia, and the proclamation that “on this night none shall sleep in Peking” precedes this opera’s most famous aria, “Nessun dorma.” For 10 points, name this opera about the exiled prince CalĂ f and the title Chinese princess by Giacomo Puccini.
Salome
The clarinet opens this opera with a rising scale split halfway between C-sharp major and G major. After one character condemns the protagonist’s mother, she replies by praising that character’s ivory skin, black hair, and red mouth. The opening motif of this opera plays again as the moon disappears behind the clouds, shortly before the protagonist is crushed to death by soldiers’ shields at the command of her stepfather. At this opera’s premiere, Marie Wittich refused to perform “the Dance of the Seven Veils.” This opera’s libretto was based on Hedwig Lachmann’s translation of an Oscar Wilde play. For 10 points, name this Richard Strauss opera whose title character asks for the head of the prophet Jochanaan.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck
In one of his operas, the agitated orchestral accompaniment undercuts the attempts a character to reassure himself after murdering his mother in “Le calme rentre dans man coeur”. This composer’s resistance to the Metastasian ideals of opera seria have caused his works to be characterized as “reform operas”. In one of his operas, the chorus repeatedly cries “No!” in response to one of the title character’s repeated pleas in (*) “Deh placatevi con me”. In that opera by him, a solo flute plays during part of a ballet depicting Elysium called “The Dance of the Blessed Spirits”. This composer of IphigĂ©nie en Tauride wrote the aria “Che farò senza Euridice?”. For 10 points, name this composer of Orfeo ed Euridice.

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